An Approach to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Period Circadian Clock 3 (PER3) Gene and Proposed Functional Associations with Exercise Training in a Thoroughbred Horse

국내산 경주마의 주기성 시계 유전자(PER3) SNP 및 운동에 따른 기능적 식별 접근 가능성 제안

Do, Kyoung-Tag;Cho, Byung-Wook

  • Received : 2015.08.06
  • Accepted : 2015.10.16
  • Published : 2015.11.30


The period circadian clock gene 3 (PER3) plays a role in the mammalian circadian clocksystem. A regular exercise regime may affect the PER3 transcription in skeletal muscle. Although the effects of day length on circadian and circannual processes are well established in humans and mice, the influence of exercise on these processes in the horse has not been investigated. The present study investigated the expression of the PER3 gene following exercise in a thoroughbred breed of Korean horse. In addition, a comprehensive in silico nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) analysis of the horse PER3 gene and predicted effects of nsSNPs on proteins were examined. The expression of PER3 in skeletal muscle was significantly upregulated after exercise. Four nsSNPs were functionally annotated and analyzed by computational prediction. The total free energy and RMSD values of PER3 gene showed causative mutations. The results showed that nsSNP s395916798 (G72R) was associated with residues that have stabilizing effects on structure and function of PER3 gene. This study documented role of PER3 gene in phenotypic adaptation related to exercise in skeletal muscle. Further, the SNPs in PER3 could serve as useful biomarkers of early recovery after exercise in racehorses.


Gene ontology;NsSNP;period circadian clock genes;thoroughbred horse


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