The Effect of the Orthographic and Phonological Priming in Korean Visual Word Recognition

한국어 시각 단어재인과정에서 음운정보와 표기정보의 역할

  • Received : 2014.10.17
  • Accepted : 2015.03.16
  • Published : 2015.03.31

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the phonological information or the orthographic information plays a major role in visual word recognition. To do so, we used a non-word lexical decision task(LDT) in Experiment 1 and masked priming tasks in Experiement 2 and 3. The results of Experiment 1 showed that reaction times and the error rates were affected by the orthographic characteristics of the non-word stimuli such that orthographically similar non-words condition showed prolonged reaction times and higher error rates than control condition. In Experiment 2 and Experiment 3, the participants performed masked priming lexical decision tasks in two SOA conditions(60ms, 150ms). The results of the both experiments showed that the orthographically identical first syllable priming facilitated lexical decision of the target words while both of the pseudo-homophone priming and the phonologically identical first syllable priming did not. The dual route hypothesis(Coltheart et al, 2001), assuming that orthographic information rather than phonological information is the major source for the visual word recognition processes, fits well with the results of the current study.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

References

  1. 권유안, 조혜숙, 남기춘 (2013). 글 단어 읽기 이해에서 음운 정보의 활성화: 동음이의어의 사건관련뇌파 증거. 언어과학, 20(2), 1-12.
  2. 김연희, 이창환 (2004). 한글 일음절 단어처리에서의 음운정보의 역할. 한국인지과학회, 15(1), 35-41.
  3. 박권생 (1996). 한글 단어 재인과정에서 음운부호의 역할. 한국심리학회지: 실험 및 인지, 8(1), 25-44.
  4. 박권생 (1997). 단어의 의미 파악에 관여하는 음운정보의 역할. 한국심리학회지:실험 및 인지, 9(2), 131-152.
  5. 박권생 (1999). 단어의 의미 파악에 음운부호의 개입이 필수적인가? 한국심리학회지: 실험 및 인지, 11(1), 17-28.
  6. 박권생 (2003). 단어 의미 파악과 음운부호: 한글 단어 범주판단 과제에서 수집된 증거. 한국심리학회지: 실험 및 인지, 15(1), 19-37.
  7. 이광오 (1996). 한글 글자열의 음독과 음운규칙. 한국심리학회지: 실험 및 인지, 8(1), 1-23.
  8. 이광오, 정진갑, 배성봉 (2007). 표기 체계와 시각적 단어 인지: 한자어의 인지에서 형태소의 표상과 처리. 한국심리학회: 인지 및 생물, 19(4), 313-327.
  9. 이창환, 김연희, 강봉경 (2003). 한글 단어 재인에 있어서 음운정보와 시각정보의 역할. 한국심리학회지: 실험 및 인지, 15, 1-17.
  10. 조혜숙, 남기춘 (2002). 실어증 환자에서 보이는 단어규칙성 효과. 한국언어청각임상학회, 7(3), 77-94.
  11. Braun, M., Hutzler, F., Ziegler, J. C., Dambacher, M., & Jacobs, A. M. (2009). Pseudohomophone effects provide evidence of early lexico-phonological processing in visual word recognition. Human brain mapping, 30(7), 1977-1989. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20643
  12. Carreiras, M., & Perea, M. (2002). Masked priming effects with syllabic neighbors in a lexical decision task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: human perception and performance, 28(5), 1228-1242. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.28.5.1228
  13. Carreiras, M., Perea, M., Vergara, M., & Pollatsek, A. (2009). The time course of orthography and phonology: ERP correlates of masked priming effects in Spanish. Psychophysiology, 46(5), 1113-1122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00844.x
  14. Carreiras, M., Gillon-Dowens, M., Vergara, M., & Perea, M. (2009). Are vowels and consonants processed differently? Event-related potential evidence with a delayed letter paradigm. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(2), 275-288. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2008.21023
  15. Chetail, F., & Mathey, S. (2009). Activation of syllable units during visual recognition of French words in Grade 2. Journal of child language, 36(04), 883-894. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000908009197
  16. Coltheart, M., Davelaar, E., Jonasson, T., & Besner, D. (1977). Access to the internal lexicon. In S. Dornic (Ed.). Attention & Performance IV. Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum.
  17. Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J. (2001). DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108(1), 204-256. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.1.204
  18. Drieghe, D., & Brysbaert, M. (2002). Strategic effects in associative priming with words, homophones, and pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(5), 951-961. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.28.5.951
  19. Forster, K. I. (1979). Levels of processing and the structure of the language processor. In W. E. Cooper & E. C. T. Walker (Eds.), Sentence processing (pp. 25-86). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  20. Fiebach, C., Friederici, A., Muller, K., & Cramon, D. V. (2002). fMRI evidence for dual routes to the mental lexicon in visual word recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(1), 11-23. https://doi.org/10.1162/089892902317205285
  21. Grainger, J., Kiyonaga, K., & Holcomb, P. J. (2006). The time course of orthographic and phonological code activation. Psychological Science, 17(12), 1021-1026. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01821.x
  22. Holcomb, P., & Grainger, J. (2006). On the time course of visual word recognition: An event-related potential investigation using masked repetition priming. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(10), 1631-1643. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2006.18.10.1631
  23. Jared, D., McRae, K. & Seidenberg, M. S. (1990). The basis of consistency effects in word naming. Journal of Memory and Language, 29(6), 687-715. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(90)90044-Z
  24. Jared, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (1991). Does word identification proceed from spelling to sound to meaning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120(4), 358-394. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.120.4.358
  25. Kutas, M., & Federmeier, K. D. (2011). Thirty years and counting: finding meaning in the N400 component of the event-related brain potential(ERP). Annual review of psychology, 62, 621-647. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.131123
  26. Leinenger, M. (2014). Phonological coding during reading. Psychological bulletin, 140(6), 1534-1555. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037830
  27. Lee, C. H., Lee, Y., & Kim, K. (2010). The role of antibody in Korean word recognition. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 39(5), 457-464. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-010-9154-y
  28. Lesch, M. F., & Pollatsek, A. (1993). Automatic access of semantic information by phonological codes in visual word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19(2), 285-294. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.19.2.285
  29. Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M. T. (1991). Phonological access of the lexicon: Evidence from associative priming with pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 17(4), 951-966. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.17.4.951
  30. Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M. T. (1993). Similar attentional, frequency, and associative effects for pseudohomophones and words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19(1), 166-178. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.19.1.166
  31. Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M. T. (1994b). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: 2. Evidence from phonological priming by homophones and pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(4), 331-353. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.123.4.331
  32. Neely, J. H. (1991). Semantic priming effects in visual word recognition: A selective review of current findings and theories. In D. Besner, & G. W. Humphreys (Eds.), Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition (pp. 264-336). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum..
  33. Proverbio, A. M., Vecchi, L., & Zani, A. (2004). From orthography to phonetics: ERP measures of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion mechanisms in reading. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(2), 301-317. https://doi.org/10.1162/089892904322984580
  34. Rastle, K., & Coltheart, M. (1999). Lexical and nonlexical phonological priming in reading aloud. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25(2), 461-481. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.25.2.461
  35. Rubenstein, H., Lewis, S. S., & Rubenstein, M. A. (1971). Evidence for phonemic recoding in visual word recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10(6), 645-657. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(71)80071-3
  36. Van Orden, G. C. (1987). A ROWS is a ROSE: Spelling, sound, and reading. Memory & Cognition, 15(3), 181-198. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197716
  37. Van Orden, G. C., & Goldinger, S. D. (1994). Interdependence of form and function in cognitive systems explains perception of printed words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20(6), 1269-1291. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.20.6.1269
  38. Zeguers, M. H. T., Snellings, P., Huizenga, H. M., & van der Molen, M. W. (2014). Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(10), 1925-1943. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.879192