Distortion of the Visual Working Memory Induced by Stroop Interference

스트룹 간섭에 의한 시각작업기억의 왜곡 현상

  • Received : 2014.10.27
  • Accepted : 2015.03.05
  • Published : 2015.03.31

Abstract

The present study tested the effect of a top-down influence on recalling the colors of Stroop words. Participants remembered the colors of 1, 2, 3 or 6 Stroop words. After 1 second of a memory delay, they were asked to recall the color of a cued Stroop word by selecting out its corresponding color on a color-wheel stimulus. The correct recall was defined when the participants chose a color that was within ${\pm}45^{\circ}$ from the exact location of Stroop word's color on the color-wheel. Otherwise, the recall was defined as incorrect. The analyses of the frequency distribution of the participants' responses in the error trials showed that the probability of choosing the color-name of the target Stroop word was higher than the probability of other five color-names on the color-wheel. Further analyses showed that increasing the number of Stroop words to manipulate memory load did not affect the probability of the Stroop interference. These results indicate that the top-down interference by Stroop manipulation may induce systematic distortion of the stored representation in visual working memory.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

References

  1. Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 13(5), 585-589. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(74)80011-3
  2. Vogel, E. K., & Luck, S. J. (2002). Delayed working memory consolidation during the attentional blink. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(4), 739-743. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196329
  3. Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 390(6657), 279-281. https://doi.org/10.1038/36846
  4. Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and brain sciences, 24(1), 87-114. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X01003922
  5. Treisman, A. (1988). Features and objects: The fourteenth Bartlett memorial lecture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40, 201-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724988843000104
  6. Treisman, A., & Schmidt, H. (1982). Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 107-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(82)90006-8
  7. Grossman, L., & Eagle, M. (1970). Synonymity, antonymity, and association in false recognition responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83, 244-248. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0028552
  8. Anderson, D. E., Vogel, E. K., & Awh, E. (2011). Precision in visual working memory reaches a stable plateau when individual item limits are exceeded. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(3), 1128-1138. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4125-10.2011
  9. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-662. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0054651
  10. Zhang, W., & Luck, S. J. (2008). Discrete fixed-resolution representations in visual working memory. Nature, 453, 233-235. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06860
  11. Zhang, W., & Luck, S. (2009). Sudden death and gradual decay in visual working memory. Psychological Science, 20(4), 423-428. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02322.x
  12. McLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research in the Stroop effect: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 109(2), 163-203. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.109.2.163
  13. Brainard, D. H. (1997). The psychophysics toolbox. Spatial Vision, 10(4), 433-436. https://doi.org/10.1163/156856897X00357
  14. Bays PM, Catalao RFG & Husain M. (2009). The precision of visual working memory is set by allocation of a shared resource. Journal of Vision 9(10): 7, 1-11
  15. Alvarez, G. A. & Cavanagh, P. (2004). The capacity of visual short-term memory is set both by information load and by number of objects. Psychological Science. 15, 106-111. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.01502006.x
  16. Vogel, E. K., & Machizawa, M. G. (2004). Neural activity predicts individual differences in visual working memory capacity. Nature, 428, 748-751. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02447
  17. Vogel, E. K., McCollough, A. W., & Machizawa, M. G. (2005). Neural measures reveal individual differences in controlling access to working memory. Nature, 438, 500-503. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04171
  18. Vogel, E. K., Woodman, G. F., & Luck, S. J. (2001). Storage of features, conjunctions, and objects in visual working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 92-114. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.27.1.92