Performance Evaluation of a Variable Frequency Heat Pump Air Conditioning System for Electric Bus

  • Peng, Qinghong (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology) ;
  • Du, Qungui (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology)
  • Received : 2014.09.01
  • Accepted : 2014.11.21
  • Published : 2015.03.31


This study presents a simulation model of a heat pump air conditioning system with a variable capacity compressor and variable speeds fans for electric bus. An experimental sample has been developed in order to check results from the model. Effects on system performance of such working conditions as compressor speed, evaporator fans speeds and the condenser fans speeds have been simulated by means of developed model. The results show that the three speeds can be adjusted simultaneously according to actual working condition so that the AC system can operate under the optimum state which the control objects want to achieve. It would be a good and simple solution to extend the driving ranges of EVs because of the highest efficiency and the lowest energy consumption of AC system.


Supported by : Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province


  1. Khayyam H, Nahavandi S, Hu E, Kouzani A, Chonka A, Abawajy J et al., 2011, "Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning via look-ahead system," Appl Therm Eng, Vol. 31, pp. 3147-3160.
  2. Khayyam H, Kouzani A, Hu EJ, Nahavandi S, 2011, "Coordinated energy management of vehicle air conditioning system," Appl Therm Eng, Vol. 31, pp. 750-764.
  3. Qi Z, Zhao Y, Chen J, 2010, "Performance enhancement study of mobile air conditioning system using microchannel heat exchangers," Int Journal Refrig, Vol. 33, pp. 301-312.
  4. Lee MY, Lee HS, Won HP, 2012, "Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle," Energies, Vol. 5, pp. 1371-1383.
  5. Saiz Jabardo JM, Gonzales Mamani W, Ianella MR, 2002, "Modeling and experimental evaluation of an automotive air conditioning system with a variable capacity compressor," Int Journal Refrig, Vol. 25, pp. 1157-1172.
  6. Hosoz M, Direk M, 2006, "Performance evaluation of an integrated automotive air conditioning and heat pump system," Energ Convers Manage, Vol. 47, pp. 545-559.
  7. Cho CW, Lee HS, Won JP, Lee MY, 2012, "Measurement and Evaluation of Heating Performance of Heat Pump Systems Using Wasted Heat from Electric Devices for an Electric Bus," Energies, Vol. 5, pp. 658-669.
  8. Lee DY, Cho CW, Won JP, Park YC, Lee MY, 2013, "Performance characteristics of mobile heat pump for a large passenger electric vehicle," Appl Therm Eng, Vol. 50, pp. 660-669.
  9. Sun H, 2012, "Research of Automatic Control System of the Solar-assisted Air-Conditioning for Pure Electric Vehicle," M.S. Thesis, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.
  10. Liu Y, Zhou G, Ma J, 2012, "Experimental Investigation on a Solar Air Heat Pump by Heat Source," 2nd International Conference on Advances in Energy Engineering, Energy Procedia, Vol. 14, pp. 1590-1594.
  11. Anton R, Jonsson H, Palm B, 2002, "Modeling of air conditioning systems for cooling of data centers," In: Inter society conference on thermal phenomena, pp. 552-558.
  12. Yeh TJ, Chen YJ, Hwang WY, Lin JL, 2009, "Incorporating fan control into air-conditioning systems to improve energy efficiency and transient response," Appl Therm Eng, Vol. 29, pp. 1995-1964.
  13. ASHRAE STANDARD 37-1988, Method of testing for rating unitary air-conditioning and heat pump equipment, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, 1988.
  14. GB/T 7725-2004, Room air conditioners, China.
  15. Nikola Stosic, Ian K. Smith, Ahmed Kovacevic and Elvedin Mujic, 2011, "Review of Mathematical Models in Performance Calculation of Screw Compressors", Inernational Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems,Vol.4, No.2, pp. 271-288.
  16. Zhang C, 2012, Fundamentals of vapor-compression refrigeration and air-conditioning system modeling, Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, China.
  17. Manabu Yagi, Takanori Shibata, Hiromi Kobayashi, Masanori Tanaka and Hideo Nishida, 2012, "Improving Flow Distribution in a Suction Channel for a Highly Efficient Centrifugal Compressor", Inernational Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems,Vol.5, No.3, pp. 100-108.
  18. Ding G, Zhang C, 2001, Simulation and Optimization of Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Equipments. Science Press, Beijing, China.
  19. Yang S, Tao W, 2006, Heat Transfer. Higher Education Press, Beijing, China.
  20. Dittus SJ, Boelter LMK, 1930, University of California Publications on Engineering, Vol. 2, pp.443.
  21. Wu Y, 2010, Refrigeration Principles and equipment. Xi'an Jiaotong University Press, Xi'an, China.
  22. Pin Liu, Norimasa Shiomi, Yoichi Kinoue, Toshiaki Setoguchi, Ying-zi Jin, 2014, "Effect of Inlet Geometry on Fan Performance and Inlet Flow Fields in a Semi-opened Axial Fan", Inernational Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems,Vol.7, No.2, pp. 60-67.

Cited by

  1. A Review of Recent Research on Automotive HVAC Systems for EVs vol.25, pp.04, 2017,
  2. Progress in Heat Pump Air Conditioning Systems for Electric Vehicles—A Review vol.9, pp.4, 2016,