Optimum Yaw Moment Distribution with ESC and AFS Under Lateral Force Constraint on AFS

AFS 횡력 제한조건 하에서 ESC와 AFS를 이용한 최적 요 모멘트 분배

  • Yim, Seongjin (Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul Nat'l Univ. of Sci. and Tech.) ;
  • Lee, Jungjae (Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul Nat'l Univ. of Sci. and Tech.) ;
  • Cho, Sung Ik (Graduate School of Industry, Dept. of Automotive Engineering, Seoul Nat'l Univ. of Sci. and Tech.)
  • 임성진 (서울과학기술대학교 기계.자동차공학과) ;
  • 이정재 (서울과학기술대학교 기계.자동차공학과) ;
  • 조성익 (서울과학기술대학교 산업대학원 자동차공학과)
  • Received : 2014.10.23
  • Accepted : 2015.03.31
  • Published : 2015.05.01


This paper presents an integrated chassis control with electronic stability control (ESC) and active front steering (AFS) under lateral force constraint on AFS. The control yaw moment is calculated using a sliding mode control. The tire forces generated by ESC and AFS are determined using weighted pseudo-inverse based control allocation (WPCA) in order to generate the control yaw moment. On a low friction road, AFS is not effective when the lateral tire forces of front wheels are easily saturated. To solve problem, the lateral force of AFS is limited to its maximum and the braking of ESC is applied with WPCA. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a simulation was performed on the vehicle simulation package, $CarSim^{(R)}$. From the simulation, it was verified that the proposed method could enhance the maneuverability and lateral stability if the lateral force of AFS exceeds its maximum.


Optimum Yaw Moment Distribution;Electronic Stability Control;Active Front Steering;Lateral Force Saturation;Weighted Pseudoinverse based Control Allocation


Supported by : 서울과학기술대학교


  1. Yim, S., Cho, W., Yoon, J. and Yi, K., 2010, "Optimum Distribution of Yaw Moment for Unified Chassis Control with Limitations on the Active Front Steering Angle," International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp.665-672.
  2. Cho, W., Yoon, J., Kim, J., Hur, J. and Yi, K. , 2008, "An Investigation into Unified Chassis Control Scheme for Optimised Vehicle Stability and Maneuverability," Vehicle System Dynamics, Volume 46 Supplement, pp.87-105.
  3. Mokhiamar, O. and Abe, M., 2004, "Simultaneous Optimal Distribution of Lateral and Longitudinal Tire Forces for the Model Following Control," ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 126, pp.753-763.
  4. van Zanten, A.T., Erhardt, R., Pfaff, G., Kost, F., Hartmann, U. and Ehret, T. , 1996, "Control Aspects of the Bosch-VDC," Proceedings of AVEC96, Aachen, Germany, pp.573-608.
  5. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2007, "Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems; Controls and Displays," NHTSA-2007-27622.
  6. Klier, W., Reimann, G. and Reinelt, W., 2004, "Concept and Functionality of the Active Front Steering System," SAE 2004-21-0073.
  7. Nissan Motor Company, "4 Wheel Active Steer (4WAS),", 2006.
  8. Motoyama, S., Uki, H., Isoda, K. and Yuasa, H., 1992, "Effect of Traction Force Distribution on Vehicle Dynamics," Proceedings of AVEC92, Japan, pp.447-451.
  9. Wang, J. and Longoria, R.G., 2006, "Coordinated Vehicle Dynamics Control with Control Distribution," Proceedings of the 2006 American Control Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, pp.5348-5353.
  10. Yim, S., Choi, J. and Yi, K., 2012, "Coordinated Control of Hybrid 4WD Vehicles for Enhanced Maneuverability and Lateral Stability," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp.1946-1950.
  11. Yim, S., 2014, "Integrated Chassis Control System with Fail Safety Using Optimum Yaw Moment Distribution," Trans. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng. A, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 315-321.
  12. Rajamani, R., 2006, Vehicle Dynamics and Control, New York, Springer.
  13. Uematsu, K. and Gerdes, J.C., 2002, "A Comparison of Several Sliding Surfaces for Stability Control," Proceedings of AVEC2002, Japan.
  14. Hu, D., Zong, C. and Na, X., 2010, "Combined Estimation of Vehicle States and Road Friction Coefficients Using Dual Extended Kalman Filter," Proceedings of AVEC2010, UK, pp.309-314
  15. Baffet, G., Charara, A., Lechner, D. and Thomas, D., 2008, "Experimental Evaluation of Observers for Tireroad Forces, Sideslip Angle and Wheel Cornering Stiffness," Vehicle System Dynamics, Vo. 46, No.6, pp.501-520.
  16. Yoon, J., Cho, W., Koo, B. and Yi, K., 2008, "Unified Chassis Control for Rollover Prevention, Maneuverability and Lateral Stability," Proceedings of AVEC08, pp.708-713.
  17. Yim, S. and Park, Y., 2011, "Design of Rollover Prevention Controller with Linear Matrix Inequality- Based Trajectory Wensitivity Minimisation," Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol.49, No.8, pp.1225-1244.
  18. Mechanical Simulation Corporation, 2001, CarSim User Manual Version 5.
  19. Ungoren, A.Y. and Peng, H., 2004, "Evaluation of Vehicle Dynamic Control for Rollover Prevention," International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp.115-122.