Diagnosis on the Riparian Vegetation in the Downstream Reach of the Gyungan Stream for Creating Vegetation Belt

수변 완충식생대 조성을 위한 경안천 하류유역의 강변식생 실태 진단

An, Ji Hong;Lim, Chi Hong;Lim, Yun Kyung;Nam, Kyeong Bae;Pi, Jung Hun;Moon, Jeong Sook;Bang, Je Yong;Lee, Chang Seok

  • Received : 2015.09.16
  • Accepted : 2015.11.16
  • Published : 2015.11.30


A landcover map watershed of downstream reach in the Gyungan stream was made by using the existing land use map and interpreting satellite images and aerial photos. Based on the map, we analyzed land use patterns of this basin. Broad-leaved forest occupied the largest area among landscape elements established in this watershed. The total area of the zone designated as the waterside district by the central government was 4.7 km2 , and broad-leaved forest occupied the largest area as 33.9% in this zone. Therefore, the area did not meet the qualifications of riparian zones. Riparian vegetation established in the Gyungan stream watershed was composed of Phragmites communis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Salix gracilistyla, Salix koreensis. But terrestrial vegetation elements such as Ambrosia trifida, Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia also appeared in this area. On the other hand, Phragmites japonica, Salix gracilistyla, Salix koreensis, Salix integra, Ulmus davidiana and so on appeared in the riparian zone the reference streams. Differently from the vegetation established on the reference streams, terrestrial vegetation elements appeared frequently in the Gyungan stream watershed. This result would be due to that the Gyungan stream watershed is exposed to excessive human interferences.


Landscape structure;Land use type;Reference stream;Riparian vegetation


  1. Agouridis, C. T., Workman, S. R., Warner, R. C., and Jennings, G. D. (2005). Livestock Grazing Management Impacts on Stream Water Quality: a Review, Journal of American Water Resources Association, 41(3), pp. 591-606.
  2. An, J. H., Lim, C. H., Lim, Y. K., Nam, K. B., and Lee, C. S. (2014). A Review of Restoration Project Evaluation and Post Management for Ecological Restoration of the River, Journal of Restoration Ecology, 4(1), pp. 15-34. [Korean Literature]
  3. Bennet, E. M., Reed-Andersen, T., Houser, J. N., Gabriel, J. R., and Carpenter, S. R. (1999). A Phosphorus Budget for the Lake Mendota watershed, Ecosystems, 2, pp. 69-75.
  4. Bolstad, P. V. and Swank, W. T. (1997). Cumilative Impacts of Land Use on Water Quality in a Southern Appalachian Watershed, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 33(3), pp. 519-533.
  5. Braun-Blanquet, J. (1964). Pflanzensoziologie; Grundze der Vegetaionskunde, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 865.
  6. Brunet, R. C. and Astin, K. B. (1997). Spatio-Temporal Variations in Sediment Nutrient Levels: the River Adour, Landscape Ecology, 12(3), pp. 171-184.
  7. Carpenter, S., Frost, T., Persson, L., Power, M., and Soto, D. (1995). Freshwater Ecosystems: Linkages of Complexity and Processes, in H. A. Mooney (Ed.), Functional Roles of Biodiversity: A Global Perspective, Chapter 12. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.
  8. Carpenter, S. R., Caraco, N. F., Correl, D. L., Howarth, R. W., Sharpley, A. N., and Smith, V. H. (1998). Nonpoint Pollution of Surface Waters with Phosphorus and Nitrogen, Ecological Applications, 8(3), pp. 559-568.[0559:NPOSWW]2.0.CO;2
  9. Cirmo, C. P. and McDonnel, J. J. (1997). Linking the Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Controls of Nitrogen Transport in Near-Stream Zones of Temperate Forested Catchments: a Review, Journal of Hydrology, 199(1-2), pp. 88-120.
  10. Cole, J. J., Peierls, C. L., Caraco, N. F., and Pace, M. L. (1993). Nitrogen Loading of Rivers as a Human-Driven Process, Humans as Components of Ecosystems, in M. J. McDonnell and S. T. A. Pickett (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, USA, pp. 141-157.
  11. Connolly, N. M., Pearsona, R. G., Loong, D., Maughanb, M., and Brodieb, J. (2015). Water Quality Variation along Streams with Similar Agricultural Development but Contrasting Riparian Vegetation, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 213, pp. 11-20.
  12. Correl, D. L. (1997). Buffer Zones and Water Quality Protection: General Principles, Buffer Zones: Their Processes and Potential in Water Protection, in N. E. Haycock, T. P. Burt, K. W. T. Goulding and G. Pinay (Ed.), Quest Environmental, Harpenden, UK, pp. 7-20.
  13. Correl, D. L., Jordan, T. E., and Weller, D. E. (1992). Nutrient Flux in a Landscape: Effects of Coastal Land Use and Terrestrial Community Mosaic on Nutrient Transport to Coastal Waters, Estuaries, 15(4), pp. 431-442.
  14. Dahlin, A. S., Emanuelsson, U., and McAdam, J. H. (2005). Nutrient Management in Low Input Grazing-Based Systems of Meat Production, Soil Use Manage, 21, pp. 122-131.
  15. Dentenbeck, N., Johnston, C. A., and Niemi, G. (1993). Wetland Effects on Lake Water Quality in the Minneapolis/St. Paul Metropolitan Area, Landscape Ecology, 8(1), pp. 39-61.
  16. Dorioz, J. M., Wang, D., Poulenard, J., and Trevisan, D. (2006). The Effect of Grass Buffer Strips on Phosphorus Dynamics - a Critical Review and Synthesis as a Basis for Application in Agricultural Landscapes in France, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 117(1), pp. 4-21.
  17. Dunn, A. M., Julien, G., Ernst, W. R., Cook, A., Doe, K. G., and Jackman, P. M. (2011). Evaluation of Buffer Zone Effectiveness in Mitigating the Risks Associated with Agricultural Runoff in Prince Edward Island, Science of Total Environment, 409(5), pp. 868-882.
  18. Fail, Jr., J. L., Haines, B. L., and Todd, R. L. (1987). Riparian Forest Communities and Their Role in Nutrient Conservation in an Agricultural Watershed, American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 2(3), pp. 114-121.
  19. Fangshe, Y., Yinqun, Y., Huaien, L., and Mingming, C. (2015). Removal Efficiencies of Vegetation-Specific Filter Strips on Nonpoint Source Pollutants, Ecological Engineering, 82, pp. 145-158.
  20. Furnas, M. (2003). Catchments and Corals: Terrestrial Runoff to the Great Barrier Reef, Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, Queensland, 334p.
  21. Geier, T. W., Perry, J. A., and Queen, L. (1994). Improving Lake Riparian Source Area Management Using Surface and Subsurface Runoff Indices, Environment Management, 18(4), pp. 569-586.
  22. Goodwin, C. N., Hawkins, C. P., and Kershner. J. L. (1997). Riparian Restoration in the Western United States: Overview and Perspective, Restoration Ecology, 5, pp. 4-14.
  23. Goss, C. W., Goebel, P. C., and Sullivan, S. M. P. (2014). Shifts in Attributes along Agriculture-Forest Transitions of Two Streams in Central Ohio, USA, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 197(1), pp. 106-117.
  24. Haycock, N. and Pinay, G. (1993). Groundwater Nitrate Dynamics in Grass and Poplar Vegetated Riparian Buffer Strips during the Winter, Journal of Environmental Quality, 22(2), pp. 273-278.
  25. Hefting, M. M., Clement, J. C., Bienkowski, P., Dowrick, D., Guenat, C., Butturini, A., Topa, S., Pinay, G., and Verhoeven, J. T. A. (2005). The Role of Vegetation and Litter in the Nitrogen Dynamics of Riparian Buffer Zones in Europe, Ecological Engineering, 24, pp. 465-482.
  26. Hill, A. R. (1996). Nitrate Removal in Stream Riparian Zones, Journal of Environmental Quality, 25(4), pp. 743-755.
  27. Hunsaker, C. T. and Levine, D. A. (1995). Hierarchical Approaches to the Study of Water Quality in Rivers, Bioscience, 45(3), pp. 193-203.
  28. Hynes, H. B. N. (1975). The Stream and Its Valley, Verhandlungren der Internationalen Vereiningung fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 19, pp. 1-15.
  29. Johnes, P., Moss, B., and Phillips, G. (1996). The Determination of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Freshwaters from Land Use, Stock Headage and Population Data: Testing of a Model for Use in Conservation and Water Quality Management, Freshwater Biology, 36(2), pp. 451-473.
  30. Johnson, A. K. L., Ebert, S. P., and Murray, A. E. (1997). Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Wetland and Riparian Zones and Opportunities for Their Management in Catchments Adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, in Protection of Wetlands Adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef, Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Babinda, Queensland, Australia, pp. 25-26.
  31. Johnson, L. B., Richards, C., Host, G., and Arthur, J. W. (1997). Landscape Influence on Water Chemistry in Midwestern Streams, Freshwater Biology, 37(1), pp. 193-208.
  32. Kelsey, K. A. and West, S. D. (1998). Riparian Wildfire, River Ecology and Management, in R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, USA, pp. 235-258.
  33. Kim, H. S. (2009). Naturalness Evaluation on the Korea Rivers for Restoration of Vegetation, Master's Thesis, Seoul Women's University, pp. 49-52. [Korean Literature]
  34. Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). (2012). The Climate Atlas of Korea 1981-2010, pp. 20-24. [Korean Literature]
  35. Lee, C. S. (2007). Ecological Evaluation on Rivers Different in Restoration Methods, 2007 Proceeding of Academic Symposium in Riverine Environment, pp. 113-119.
  36. Lee, C. S., An, J. H., Pi, J. H., Lee, S. M., and Lee, J. S. (2011). Futuristic Direction River Restoration in Korea under Changing Climate Regime, Journal of Restoration Ecology, 2(2), pp. 137-143.
  37. Lee, C. S., Cho, Y. C., Shin, H. C., Moon, J. S., Lee, B. C., Bae, Y. S., Byun, H. G., and Yi, H. (2005). Ecological Response of Streams in Korea under Different Management Regimes, Water Engineering Research, 6(3), pp. 131-147.
  38. Lee, C. S., Jeong, Y. M., and Kang, H. S. (2011). Concept, Direction and Task of Ecological Restoration, Journal of Restoration Ecology, 2(1), pp. 59-71. [Korean Literature]
  39. Lee, K. H., Isenhart, T. M., and Schultz, R. C. (2003). Sediment and Nutrient Removal in an Established Multispecies Riparian Buffer, Journal of Soil Water Conservation, 58(1), pp. 1-8.
  40. Lowrance, R. (1998). Riparian Forest Ecosystems as Filters for Nonpoint-Source Pollution, Successes, Limitations and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science, in M. L. Pace and P. M. Groffman (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, USA, pp. 113-141.
  41. Lowrance, R., Altier, L. S., Newbold, J. D., Schnabel, R. R., Groffman, P. M., Denver, J. M., Correll, D. L., Gilliam, J. W., Robinson, J. L., Brinsfield, R. B., Staver, K. W., Lucas, W., and Todd, A. H. (1997). Water Quality Functions of Riparian Forest Buffer System in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Environmental Management, 21(5), pp. 687-712.
  42. Mikołaj, P., Paweł, M., Ignacy, K., Marek, G., Katarzyna, I., and Wojciech, F. (2015). Spatial Quantification of Non-Point Source Pollution in a Meso-Scale Catchment for an Assessment of Buffer Zones Efficiency, Water, 7, pp. 1889-1920.
  43. Mueller-Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. (1974). Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology, Wiley, New York, USA, 547p.
  44. Mueller, D. K. and Helsel, D. R. (1996). Nutrients in the Nation's Waters: Too Much of a Good Thing?, U. S. Geological Survey, USA, pp. 31.
  45. Naiman, R. J., and Decamps, H. (1997). The Ecology of Interfaces: Riparian Zones, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, pp. 621-658.
  46. Osborne, L. L. and Kovacic, D. A. (1993). Riparian Vegetated Buffer Strips in Water Quality Restoration and Stream Management, Freshwater Biology, 29(2), pp. 243-258.
  47. Osborne, L. L. and Wiley, M. J. (1988). Empirical Relationship Between Land Use/Cover and Stream Water Quality in an Agricultural Watershed, Journal of Environmental Management, 26(1), pp. 9-27.
  48. Oteroa, J. D., Figueroa, A., Munoz, F. A., and Pena, M. R. (2011). Loss of Soil and Nutrients by Surface Runoff in Two Agro-Ecosystems within an Andean Paramo Area, Ecological Engineering, 37(12), pp. 2035-2043.
  49. Pan, C. Z., Ma, L., and Shangguan, Z. P. (2008). Influence of Sediment Concentration on Deposition of Silt and Runoff Hydraulics on Grassland, Advances in Water Science, 19(6), pp. 857-862.
  50. Pan, C. Z., Ma, L., and Shangguan, Z. P. (2010). Effectiveness of Grass Strips in Trapping Suspended Sediments from Runoff, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 35(9), pp. 1006-1013.
  51. Park, S. A., Kim, G. S, Pee, J. H., Oh, W. S., Kim, H. S., and Lee, C. S. (2013). Reference Information for Realizing Ecological Restoration of River: A Case Study in the Bongseonsa Stream, Journal of Ecology Environment, 36(4), pp. 235-243.
  52. Pollock, M. M. (1998). Biodiversity, in R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, USA, pp. 430-452.
  53. Solange, F., Luiz, A. M., Michael, R. W., Luciene, B. L., Alex, K., Maria, V. B., Reynaldo, V., and Plinio, B. D. C. (2003). Land Use and Nitrogen Export in the Piracicaba River Basin, Southeast Brazil, Biogeochemistry, 65, pp. 275-294.
  54. Turner, M. G., Carpenter, S. R., Gustafson, E. J., Naiman, R. J., and Person, S. M. (1998). Land Use, Status and Trends of Our Nation's Biological Resources, Volume 1, in M. J. Mac, P. A. Opler, P. Doran and C. Haecker (Ed.), National Biological Service, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 37-61.
  55. Turner, M. G., Gardner, R. H., and O’neill, R. V. (2001). Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice, Springer-Verlag, New York, USA, pp. 401.
  56. United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). (2005). Riparian Buffer Width, Vegetation Cover, and Nitrogen Removal Effectiveness; A Review of Currrent Science and Regulations, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Ohio, pp. 40.
  57. Vitousek, P. M., Aber, J. D., Howarth, R. W., Likens, G. E., Matson, P. A., Schindler, D. W., Schlesinger, W. H., and Tilman, D. G. (1997). Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycles: Sources and Consequences, Ecological Applications, 7(3), pp. 737-750.
  58. Weller, D. E., Jordan, T. E., and Correll, D. L. (1998). Heuristic Models for Material Discharge from Landscapes with Riparian Buffers, Ecological Applications, 8(4), pp. 1156-1169.[1156:HMFMDF]2.0.CO;2