- Volume 28 Issue 8
DOI QR Code
Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats
- Morsy, T.A. (Dairy Science Department, National Research Center) ;
- Kholif, S.M. (Dairy Science Department, National Research Center) ;
- Kholif, A.E. (Dairy Science Department, National Research Center) ;
- Matloup, O.H. (Dairy Science Department, National Research Center) ;
- Salem, A.Z.M. (Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico) ;
- Elella, A. Abu (Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center)
- Received : 2014.11.03
- Accepted : 2015.02.11
- Published : 2015.08.01
This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.
Fatty Acid Profile;Lactating Goats;Milk Composition;Sunflower Seeds;Sunflower Oil
- AbuGhazaleh, A. A. and L. D. Holmes. 2007. Diet supplementation with fish oil and sunflower oil to increase conjugated linoleic acid levels in milk fat of partially grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:2897-2904. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-684
- AOAC. 1997. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
- AOAC. 2007. Official Methods of Analysis. 19th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.
- Baile, C. A. and J. M. Forbes. 1974. Control of feed intake and regulation of energy balance in ruminants. Physiol. Rev. 54:160-214. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1918.104.22.168
- Beauchemin, K. A., S. M. McGinn, C. Benchaar, and L. Holtshausen. 2009. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 92:2118-2127. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1903
- Castro, T., T. Manso, V. Jimeno, M. Del Alamo, and A. R. Mantecon. 2009. Effects of dietary sources of vegetable fats on performance of dairy ewes and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk. Small Rumin. Res. 84:47-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.05.005
- Chilliard, Y., F. Glasser, A. Ferlay, L. Bernard, J. Rouel, and M. Doreau. 2007. Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109:828-855. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700080
- Chilliard, Y., J. Rouel, A. Ferlay, L. Bernard, P. Gaborit, K. Raynal-Ljutovac, A. Lauret, and C. Leroux. 2006. Optimising goat's milk and cheese fatty acid composition. In: Improving the Fat Content of Foods (Eds. C. Williams and J. Buttriss). Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, UK. pp. 123-145.
- Clark, J. H., H. R. Spires, R. G. Derring, and M. R. Bennink. 1977. Milk production, nitrogen utilization and glucose synthesis in lactating cows infused postruminally with sodium caseinate and glucose. J. Nutr. 107:631-644. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/107.4.631
- Dixit, S. J., K. K. Appu Kuttan, and K. Singh. 2012. Study of human allergic milk whey protein from different mammalian species using computational method. Bioinformation 8:1035-1041. https://doi.org/10.6026/97320630081035
- Dschaak, C. M. 2009. Production Performance and Profiles of Milk Fatty Acids of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Whole Safflower Seed Containing High Fat and Low Fiber. Master's Thesis, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA.
- Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometrics 11:1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
Ebrahimi, M., M. A. Rajion, and Y. M. Goh. 2014. Effects of oils rich in linoleic and
$\alpha$-linolenic acids on fatty acid profile and gene expression in goat meat. Nutrients 6:3913-3928. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6093913
- Flatt, W. P., R. G. Warner, and J. K. Loosli. 1956. Absorption of volatile fatty acids from the reticulo-rumen of young dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 39:928.
- Fulton, W. R., T. J. Klopfenstein, and R. A. Britton. 1979. Adaptation to high concentrate diets by beef cattle: II. Effect of ruminal pH alteration on rumen fermentation and voluntary intake of wheat diets. J. Anim. Sci. 49:785-789. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.493785x
- ISO-IDF. 2002. Milk fat-preparation of fatty acid methyl esters. International Standard ISO 15884-IDF 182:2002.
- Ivan, M., P. S. Mir, Z. Mir, T. Entz, M. L. He, and T. A. McAllister. 2004. Effects of dietary sunflower seeds on rumen protozoa and growth of lambs. Br. J. Nutr. 92:303-310. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20041178
- Kennelly, J. J. 1996. The fatty acid composition of milk fat as influenced by feeding oilseeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 60:137-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(96)00973-X
- Khattab, H. M., H. M. Gado, A. E. Kholif, A. M. Mansour, and A. M. Kholif. 2011. The potential of feeding goats sun dried rumen contents with or without bacterial inoculums as replacement for berseem clover and the effects on milk production and animal health. Int. J. Dairy Sci. 6:267-277. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijds.2011.267.277
- Kholif, A. E., H. M. Khattab, A. A. El-Shewy, A. Z. M. Salem, A. M. Kholif, M. M. El-Sayed, H. M. Gado, and M. D. Mariezcurrena. 2014. Nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation activities, serum parameters and milk production and composition of lactating goats fed diets containing rice straw treated with Pleurotus ostreatus. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27:357-364. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13405
- Kholif, S. M., T. A. Morsy, O. H. Matloup, H. M. Ebeid, and A. M. Kholif. 2015. Effects of crushed linseed or linseed oil supplementation on performance of dairy goats and fatty acid profile in milk. Life Sci. J. 12:94-99.
- Mesquita, I. V. U., R. G. Costa, R. de Cassia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, A. N. de Medeiros, and A. R. P. Schuler. 2008. Profile of milk fatty acids from moxoto goats fed with different levels of manicoba (Manihot Glaziovii Muel Arg.) silage. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 51:1163-1169. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132008000600011
- Mir, Z., L. A. Goonewardene, E. Okine, S. Jaegar, and H. D. Sceer. 1999. Effect of feeding canola oil on constituents, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and long chain fatty acids in goats milk. Small Rumin. Res. 33:137-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(99)00016-4
- Mohammed, R., S. M. McGinn, and K. A. Beauchemin 2011. Prediction of enteric methane output from milk fatty acid concentrations and rumen fermentation parameters in dairy cows fed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds. J. Dairy Sci. 94:6057-6068. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4369
- Ney, D. M. 1991. Potential for enhancing the nutritional properties of milk fat. J. Dairy Sci. 74:4002-4012. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78595-0
- Noakes, M., P. J. Nstel, and P. M. Clifton. 1996. Modifying the fatty acid profile of dairy products through feedlot technology lowers plasma cholesterol of humans consuming the products. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 63:42-46. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/63.1.42
- NRC. 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, USA.
- Ollier, S., C. Leroux, A. de la Foye, L. Bernard, J. Rouel, and Y. Chilliard. 2009. Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats. J. Dairy Sci. 92:5544-5560. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2022
- Orskov, E. R. and R. Ryle. 1990. Energy Nutrition in Ruminants. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, USA.
- Peng, Y. S., M. A. Brown, J. P. Wu, and Z. Liu. 2010. Different oilseed supplements alter fatty acid composition of different adipose tissues of adult ewes. Meat Sci. 85:542-549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.03.003
- Petit, H. V., C. Germiquet, and D. Lebel. 2004. Effect of feeding whole, unprocessed sunflower seeds and flaxseed on milk production, milk composition, and prostaglandin secretion in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3889-3898. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73528-6
- Petit, H. V. 2003. Digestion, milk production, milk composition, and blood composition of dairy cows fed formaldehyde treated flaxseed or sunflower seed. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2637-2646. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73859-4
- Rafalowski, W. and C. S. Park. 1982. Whole sunflower seed as a fat supplement for lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1484-1492. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82372-2
- Sanz Sampelayo, M. R., L. Perez, J. J. Martin Alonso, L. Amigo, and J. Boza. 2002. Effects of concentrates with different contents of protected fat rich in PUFAs on the performance lactating Granadina goats. Part II. Milk production and composition. Small Rumin. Res. 43:141-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00007-X
- SAS, 2006. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Ver 9.0. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
- Satter, L. D. and L. L. Slyter. 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. Br. J. Nutr. 32:199-208. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19740073
- Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Bioestadistica: Principios y Procedimientos. McGraw-Hill, Mexico City, Mexico. pp. 181-184.
- Nutrient Regulation: Conjugated Linoleic Acid's Inflammatory and Browning Properties in Adipose Tissue vol.36, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-050924
- Effect of Supplementing Diets of Anglo-Nubian Goats with Soybean and Flaxseed Oils on Lactational Performance vol.64, pp.31, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02625
- Effect of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows vol.87, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12609
- -3 Fatty Acid Ratios Alter Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Populations in Goats vol.65, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b04704
- Milk Production of Ettawah Grade Goat Fed Diet Containing Different Protein and Energy Contents Supplemented with Organic Mineral and Grapes Seed Oil vol.119, pp.1755-1315, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/119/1/012051
- Variations in fatty acid composition of Laoshan goat milk from partum to 135 days postpartum pp.13443941, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.13098