The Technical and Financial Effects of Parenteral Supplementation with Selenium and Vitamin E during Late Pregnancy and the Early Lactation Period on the Productivity of Dairy Cattle

  • Bayril, T. (Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dicle University) ;
  • Yildiz, A.S. (Department of Animal Health Economics and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dicle University) ;
  • Akdemir, F. (Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Fisheries, Inonu University) ;
  • Yalcin, C. (Department of Animal Health Economics and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dicle University) ;
  • Kose, M. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dicle University) ;
  • Yilmaz, O. (Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University)
  • Received : 2014.12.24
  • Accepted : 2015.02.27
  • Published : 2015.08.01


This study aimed to determine the effects of parenteral selenium (Se) and vitamin E supplementation on economic impact, milk yield, and some reproductive parameters in high-yield dairy cows in the dry period and in those at the beginning of lactation. At the beginning of the dry period, cows (n = 323) were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2), and Control (C). Cows in group T1 received this preparation 21 days before calving and on calving day, and cows in group T2 received it only on calving day. The cows in the control group did not receive this preparation. Supplementation with Se increased Se serum levels of cows treated at calving day (p<0.05). Differences in milk yield at all weeks and the electrical conductivity values at the 8th and 12th weeks were significant (p<0.05). Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E decreased the incidence of metritis, the number of services per conception and the service period, but had no effects on the incidence of retained fetal membrane. A partial budgeting analysis indicated that Se supplementation was economically profitable; cows in group T1 averaged 240.6$ per cow, those in group T2 averaged 224.6$ per cow. Supplementation with Se and Vitamin E has been found to increase serum Se levels, milk yield, and has positive effects on udder health by decreasing milk conductivity values and incidence of sub-clinical mastitis.


Selenium;Vitamin E;Milk Yield;Reproductive Parameters;Partial Budget Analysis;Dairy Cattle


  1. Abdelrahman, M. M. and R. L. Kincaid. 1995. Effect of selenium supplementation of cows on maternal transfer of selenium to fetal and newborn calves. J. Dairy Sci. 78:625-630.
  2. Arechiga, C. F., S. Vazquez-Flores, O. Ortiz, J. Hernandez-Ceron, A. Porras, L. R. McDowell, and P. J. Hansen. 1998. Effect of injection of $\beta$-carotene or vitamin E and selenium on fertility of lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology 50:65-76.
  3. Arslan, C. and T. Tufan. 2010. Nutrition of Transition in Dairy Cows I. Following this period of physiological, hormonal, metabolic, immunological changes and nutritional needs. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak Derg. 16:151-158.
  4. Arthur, J. R., R. C. McKenzie, and G. J. Becket. 2003. Selenium in the immune system. J. Nutr. 133:1457S-1459S.
  5. Bicalho, M. L. S., V. S. Machado, G. Oikonomou, R. O. Gilbert, and R. C. Bicalho. 2011. Association between virulence factors of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes and uterine diseases of dairy cows. Vet. Microbiol. 157:125-131.
  6. Bourne, N., R. Laven, D. C. Wathes, T. Martinez, and M. McGowan. 2007. A meta-analysis of the effects of Vitamin E supplementation on the incidence of retained foetal membranes in dairy cows. Theriogenology 67:494-501.
  7. Bourne, N., D. C. Wathes, K. E. Lawrence, M. McGowan, and R. A. Laven. 2008. The effect of parenteral supplementation of vitamin E with selenium on the health and productivity of dairy cattle in the UK. Vet. J. 177:381-387.
  8. Brzezinska Slebodzinska, E., J. K. Miller, J. D. Quigley, J. R. Moore, and F. C. Madsen. 1994. Antioxidant status of dairy cows supplemented prepartum with vitamin E and selenium. J. Dairy Sci. 77:3087-3095.
  9. Ceballos-Marquez, A., H. W. Barkema, H. Stryhn, J. J. Wichtel, J. Neuman, A. Mella, J. Kruze, M. S. Espindola, and F. Wittwer. 2010. The effect of selenium supplementation before calving on early-lactation udder health in pastured dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 93:4602-4612.
  10. Cerri, R. L. A., H. M. Rutigliano, F. S. Lima, D. B. Araujo, and J. E. P. Santos. 2009. Effect of source of supplemental selenium on uterine health and embryo quality in high-producing dairy cows. Theriogenology 71:1127-1137.
  11. Daskin, A. 2005. Management of reproduction and artificial insemination in dairy farm. Aydan Web Ofset, Ankara. ISBN:975-00078-1-6.
  12. Dogukan, A., N. Sahin, M. Tuzcu, V. Juturu, C. Orhan, M. Onderci, J. Komorowski, and K. Sahin. 2009. The effects of chromium histidinate on mineral status of serum and tissue in fat-fed and streptozotocin-treated type II diabetic rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 131:124-132.
  13. Emanuelson, U., P. A. Oltenacu, and Y. T. Grohn. 1993. Nonlinear mixed model analyses of five production disorders of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 76:2765-2772.
  14. Erskine, R. J., R. J. Eberhart, L. J. Hutchinson, and R. W. Scholz. 1987. Blood selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities in dairy herds with high and low somatic cell counts. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 190:1417-1421.
  15. Gerloff, B. J. 1992. Effect of selenium supplementation on dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3934-3940.
  16. Giles and Stansfield. 1990. The farmer as manager. Cab International ISBN: 085198 673 0.
  17. Gupta, S., H. K. Gupta, and J. Soni. 2005. Effect of Vitamin E and selenium supplementation on concentrations of plasma cortisol and erythrocyte lipid peroxides and the incidence of retained fetal membranes in crossbred dairy cattle. Theriogenology 64:1273-1286.
  18. Hamann, J. and A. Zecconi. 1998. Evaluation of the electrical conductivity of milk as a mastitis indicator. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed, No. 334.
  19. Harrison, J. H., D. D. Hancock, and H. R. Conrad. 1984. Vitamin E and selenium for reproduction of the dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 67:123-132.
  20. Harrison, J. H., D. D. Hancock, N. St. Pierre, H. R. Conrad, and W. R. Harvey. 1986. Effect of prepartum selenium treatment on uterine involution in the dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 69:1421-1425.
  21. Harrison, J. H. and D. D. Hancock. 1999. Role of selenium and vitamin E deficiency in postpartum reproductive diseases. In: Honorary Lectures on Selenium and Vitamin E (Ed. A. L. Moxon). Wooster, OH, USA. pp. 85-99.
  22. Jalilian, M. T., M. M. Moeini, and K. Karkodi. 2012. Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation during the late pregnancy on colostrum and plasma Se, Cu, Zn and Fe concentrations of fat tail SanJabi ewes and their lams. Acta Agric. Slov. 100/2:123-129.
  23. Kommisrud, E., O. Osteras, and T. Vatn. 2005. Blood Selenium Associated with Health and Fertility in Norwegian Dairy Herds. Acta Vet. Scand. 46:229-240.
  24. Lacetera, N., U. Bernabuci, B. Ronchi, and A. Nardone. 1996. Effects of selenium and vitamin E administration during a late stage of pregnancy on colostrum and milk production in dairy cows, and on passive immunity and growth of their offspring. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57:1776-1780.
  25. Machado, V. S., M. L. Bicalho, R. V. Pereira, L. S. Caixeta, W. A. Knauer, G. Oikonomou, R. O. Gilbert, and R. C. Bicalho. 2013. Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese on the health and production of lactating Holstein cows. Vet. J. 197:451-456.
  26. Machado, V. S., G. Oikonomou, M. L. S. Bicalho, W. A. Knauer, R. Gilbert, and R. C. Bicalho. 2012. Investigation of postpartum dairy cows' uterine microbial diversity using metagenomic pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Vet. Microbiol. 159:460-469
  27. Moeini, M. M., H. Karami, and E. Mikaeili. 2009. Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation during the late pregnancy on reproductive indices and milk production in heifers. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 114:109-114.
  28. National Milk Board of Turkey. 2014. Accessed 06, 2014.
  29. Ndiweni, N. and J. M. Finch. 1996. Effects of in vitro supplementation with $\alpha$-tocopherol and selenium on bovine neutrophil functions: Implications for resistance to mastitis. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 51:67-78.
  30. Nielen, M., H. Deluyker, Y. H. Schukken, and A. Brand. 1992. Electrical conductivity of milk: Measurement, modifiers, and meta analysis of mastitis detection performance. J. Dairy Sci. 75:606-614.
  31. NRC. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th ed. NationalAcademy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  32. Phipps, R. H., A. S. Grandison, A. K. Jones, D. T. Juniper, E. Ramos-Morales, and G. Bertin. 2008. Selenium supplementation of lactating dairy cows: Effects on milk production and total selenium content and speciation in blood, milk and cheese. Animal 2:1610-1618.
  33. Pryce, J. E., M. D. Royal, P. C. Garnsworthy, and I. L. Mao. 2004. Fertility in the high-producing dairy cow. Livest. Prod. Sci. 86:125-135.
  34. Roche, J. F., D. Mackey, and M. D. Diskin. 2000. Reproductive management of postpartum cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60-61:703-712
  35. Roche, J. F. 2006. The effect of nutritional management of the dairy cow on reproductive efficiency. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 96:282-296.
  36. Smith, K. L., J. H. Harrison, D. D. Hancock, D. A. Todhunter, and H. R. Conrad. 1984. Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on incidence of clinical mastitis and duration of clinical symptoms. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1293-1300.
  37. Sordillo, L. M. and K. L. Streicher. 2002. Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia. 7:135-146.
  38. Sordillo, L. M. and S. L. Aitken. 2009. Impact of oxidative stress on the health and immune function of dairy cattle. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 128(1-3):104-109.
  39. Sordillo, L. M. 2013. Selenium-dependent regulation of oxidative stress and immunity in periparturient dairy cattle. Vet. Med. Int. Volume 2013, Article ID 154045, 8 pages,
  40. Spears, J. W. 2000. Micronutrients and immune function in cattle. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59:587-594.
  41. Spears, J. W. and W. P. Weiss. 2008. Role of antioxidants and trace elements in health and immunity of transition dairy cows. Vet. J. 176:70-76.
  42. Wang, C., Q. Liu, W. Z. Yang, Q. Dong, X. M. Yang, D. C. He, P. Zhang, K. H. Dong, and Y. X. Huang. 2009. Effects of selenium yeast on rumen fermentation, lactation performance and feed digestibilities in lactating dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 126:239-244.
  43. Wilde, D. 2006. Influence of macro and micro minerals in the periparturient period on fertility in dairy cattle. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 96:240-249.
  44. Vanegas, J. A., J. Reynolds, and E. R. Atwill. 2004. Effects of an injectable trace mineral supplement on first-service conception rate of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3665-3671.
  45. Yalcin, C. 2000. Financial losses resulting from infertility in dairy cattle. Lalahan Livest. Res. Inst. J. 40:39-47.
  46. Yalcin, C., S. Sariozkan, A. S. Yildiz, and A. Gunlu. 2006. Endemic diseases in dairy farm related Turkey Cattle Breeders Central Union and economic losses caused by the enterprise level. Ankara University Scientific Research Projects Office, Ankara, Turkey.