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Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

  • Kim, J. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Seo, J. (Department of Animal Science, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, W. (Department of Animal Biosystem Sciences, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Yun, H.M. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, S.C. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Jang, Y. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Jang, K. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, K. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, B. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Park, S. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Park, I. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, M.K. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Seo, K.S. (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University) ;
  • Kim, H.B. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, I.H. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Seo, S. (Department of Animal Biosystem Sciences, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Song, M. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2014.11.28
  • Accepted : 2015.03.14
  • Published : 2015.08.01

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC) of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows ($200{\pm}12kg$ of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity) were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning) after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05) and lost less BW (-6.85 vs -8.54 kg; p<0.05) and backfat depth (-0.42 vs -0.71 mm; p<0.05) than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08) and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07) than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs $11.82{\times}10^3/{\mu}L$; p = 0.09) before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs $9.80{\times}10^3/{\mu}L$; p<0.05) on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. In conclusion, addition of 20% palm kernel expellers to lactation diet based on corn and soybean meal had no negative effects on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and WBC changes of lactating sows.

Keywords

Diarrhea;Lactating Sows;Nutrient Digestibility;Palm Kernel Expellers;Performance;White Blood Cells

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