An Analysis of Natural Ventilation Characteristics on the Effects of Wind Velocity and Solar Radiation

풍속과 일사량 변화에 따른 선형 아트리움의 자연환기량 변화 특성에 관한 연구

  • So, Myong Gu ;
  • Kim, Taeyeon ;
  • Leigh, Seung-Bok
  • 서명구 ;
  • 김태연 ;
  • 이승복
  • Received : 2015.02.05
  • Accepted : 2015.07.16
  • Published : 2015.07.30


Atrium is a design element for the purpose of natural ventilation and natural lighting. In particular, it is possible to improve indoor thermal conditions and decrease energy usage load of a building through proper natural ventilation strategies. The natural ventilation can occur through temperature and pressure differences between the indoor and outdoor environment and across the atrium space. External wind speed and solar radiation influence the change of temperature differences and pressure differences significantly. However, it is difficult to analyze the exact nature of the wind speed and solar radiation and therefore natural ventilation rate as well. This study compares data from a CFD simulation model and actual data of an existing building to verify the validity of the simulation analysis. Then the natural ventilation rates of each temperature differences and pressure differences are analyzed using the CFD simulation. As a result, the increase in temperature differences increased the overall natural ventilation rate. However when there is an increase in external wind speed, the influence of solar radiation decreases and the temperature differences are also decreased. Temperature differences are the predominant influential factor until the external wind speed of 2.5m/s. After the wind speed of 2.5m/s, pressure differences are more influential factor than temperature differences. This study can be used as a basic material to provide operation strategies of atrium according to the seasonal outdoor conditions and to help setting the positions of openings in an atrium in design stage of a building construction.


Atrium;Natural ventilation;Buoyancy ventilation;Vertical temperature difference;Wind pressure coefficient


  1. Abdullah, A. H., Meng, Q., Zhao, L., & Wang, F. (2009). Field study on indoor thermal environment in an atrium in tropical climates. Build Environment, 44, 431-436.
  2. Chan, H. Y., Riffat, S. B., & Zhu, J. (2010). Review of passive solar heating and cooling technologies. Renew Sustain Energy, 14, 781-789.
  3. Kim, D. S., Choi, W. Y., Lee, J. H., & Oh, M. D. (1998). The Characteristics of flow and thermal environment in Atriums with Various Roof Shaper. Journal of The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2(2), 141-142
  4. Horan, J. M., & Finn, D. P. (2008). Sensitivity of air change rates in a naturally ventilated atrium space subject to variations in external wind speed and direction. Energy Build, 40, 1577-1585.
  5. Han, K. Y., Park, S. H., & Park, J. S. (2000). An Measurement on the thermal environment in a linear atrium according to the solar radiation. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 20(2), 901-904
  6. Park, J. S., & Sohn, J. Y. (2010). Prediction and Estimation of Thermal Performance Centering of Architectural Variables in a Four-Sided Atrium. J. korean. Soc Living Environ Sys, 8(2), 201-211
  7. Kim, T. Y., Kim, J. T., & Roh, J. W. (1998). Analysis of Indoor Heat Gain due to Solar Radiation and Coupled Simulation of Convection, Radiation and Heat Conduction within Atrium. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 18(1), 469-474
  8. Khan, N., Su, Y., & Riffat, S. B. (2008). A review on wind driven ventilation techniques. Energy Build, 1586-1604.
  9. Li, R., & Pitts, A. (2006). Thermal comfort and environmental modelling in atrium buildings. Proceedings PLEA2006. 23rd ed., 6-8.
  10. Li, C., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., & Ji, Q. (2010). The temperature stratification measurement and simulation in atrium of Wuhan Station. Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE international conference on multi media technology(ICMT), Hangzhou, China, 4240-4243.
  11. Liu, P. C., Lin, H. T., & Chou, J. H. (2009). Evaluation of buoyancy-driven ventilation in atrium buildings using computational fluid dynamics and reduced-scale air model. Build Environ, 44, 1970-1979.
  12. Lee, S. W. (2013). Cooling energy reduction effect of Double-window system operation in residential buildings. Dept of Architectural Engineering, The Graduate School, Yonsei University
  13. Mouriki, E. (2009). Solar-assisted hybrid ventilation in an institutional building. Concordia University, Canada
  14. Moon, J. M., & Kim, Y. S. (2000). A Study on the Optimum Opening Area Ratio and its Positions of the Atrium for an Effective Natural Ventilation. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 20(2), 805-808
  15. Pan, Y., Li, Y., Huang, Z., & Wu, G. (2010). Study on simulation methods of atrium building cooling load in hot and humid regions. Energy Build, 42, 1654-1660.
  16. Roh, J. W. (2012). Study on Improvement of Thermal Environment by using Wind-driven Natural Ventilation on the Atrium. Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society, 32(1), 40-47
  17. Rojas, D.P. (2013). Atrium building design : key aspects to improve their thermal performance on the Mediterranean climate of Santiago de Chile. Int J Low-Carbon Technol, 8, 1-4.
  18. So, M. G., Kim, T. Y., & Leigh, S. B. (2014). An Analysis of Natural Ventilation Performance for efficient Operation Mode of Linear Atrium. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 34(2), 369-370
  19. Wang, X., Huang, C., & Cao, W. (2009). Mathematical modeling and experimental study on vertical temperature distribution of hybrid ventilation in an atrium building. Energy Build, 41, 907-914.
  20. Yunus, J., Ahmad, S. S., & ZainAhmed, A. (2010). Analysis of atrium's architectural aspects in office buildings under tropical sky conditions. Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on science and social research(CSSR). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 536-541.


Supported by : 국토교통부