DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

High-Velocity Impact Damage Behavior of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Laminates

Kim, Young A.;Woo, Kyeongsik;Cho, Hyunjun;Kim, In-Gul;Kim, Jong-Heon

  • Received : 2015.03.05
  • Accepted : 2015.06.24
  • Published : 2015.06.30

Abstract

In this paper, the impact damage behavior of USN-150B carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to high velocity impact was studied experimentally and numerically. Square composite laminates stacked with $[45/0/-45/90]_{ns}$ quasi-symmetric and $[0/90]_{ns}$ cross-ply stacking sequences and a conical shape projectile with steel core, copper skin and lead filler were considered. First high-velocity impact tests were conducted under various test conditions. Three tests were repeated under the same impact condition. Projectile velocity before and after penetration were measured by infrared ray sensors and magnetic sensors. High-speed camera shots and C-Scan images were also taken to measure the projectile velocities and to obtain the information on the damage shapes of the projectile and the laminate specimens. Next, the numerical simulation was performed using explicit finite element code LS-DYNA. Both the projectile and the composite laminate were modeled using three-dimensional solid elements. Residual velocity history of the impact projectile and the failure shape and extents of the laminates were predicted and systematically examined. The results of this study can provide the understanding on the penetration process of laminated composites during ballistic impact, as well as the damage amount and modes. These were thought to be utilized to predict the decrease of mechanical properties and also to help mitigate impact damage of composite structures.

Keywords

High-Velocity Ballistic Impact;Composite Laminates;Impact Damage Mode and Extent;Residual Velocity

References

  1. Zeng, T., Fang, D. and Lu, T., "Dynamic Crushing and Impact Energy Absorption of 3D Braided Composite Tubes," Materials Letters, Vol. 59, 2005, pp. 1491-1496. DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2005.01.007 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2005.01.007
  2. Menna, C., Asprone, D., Caprino, G., Lopresto, V. and Prota, A., "Numerical Simulation of Impact Tests on GRFP Composite Laminates," Int. J. of Impact Engineering, Vol. 38, 2011, pp. 677-685. DOI:10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2011.03.003 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2011.03.003
  3. Park, C.-K., Kan, C.-D., Hollowell, W.T. and Hill, S.I., "Investigation of Opportunities for Lightweight Vehicles Using Advanced Plastics and Composites," Report No. DOT HS 811 692, Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2012.
  4. Hsiao, H.M. and Daniel, I.M., "Strain Rate Behavior of Composite Materials," Composites Part B, Vol. 29, Issue 5, 1998, pp. 521-533. DOI:10.1016/S1359-8368(98)00008-0 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-8368(98)00008-0
  5. Gilat, A., Goldberg, R.K. and Roberts, G.D., "Experimental Study of Strain-Rate-Dependent Behavior of Carbon/Epoxy Composite," Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 62, 2002, pp. 1469-1476. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-3538(02)00100-8
  6. Xiao, J.R., Gama, B.A. and Gillespie, Jr., J.W., "Progressive Damage and Delamination in Plain Weave S-2 Glass/SC-15 Composites Under Quasi-Static Punch-Shear Loading," Composite Structures, Vol. 78, 2007, pp. 182-196. DOI:10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.09.001 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.09.001
  7. Loikkanen, M.J., "A Computational and Experimental Analysis of Ballistic Impact to Sheet Metal Aircraft Strictures," 9th European LS-DYNA Conf., 2005.
  8. Silva, M.A.G., Cismasiu, C. and Chiorean, C.G., "Numerical Simulation of Ballistic Impact on Composite Laminates", Int. J. of Impact Engineering, Vol.31, 2005, pp. 289-306. DOI:10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2004.01.011 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2004.01.011
  9. Davies, G.A.O. and Zhang, X., "Impact Damage Prediction in Carbon Composites Structures," Int. J. of Impact Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1995, pp. 149-170. DOI:10.1016/0734-743X(94)00039-Y https://doi.org/10.1016/0734-743X(94)00039-Y
  10. Hou, J.P., Petrinic, N., Ruiz, C. and Hallett, S.R., "Prediction of Impact Damage in Composite Plates", Composite Science and Technology, Vol. 60, 2000, pp. 273-281. DOI:10.1016/S0266-3538(99)00126-8 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-3538(99)00126-8
  11. Abrate, S., "Impact on Laminated Composite Materials," Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 44, No. 4, 1991, pp. 155-190. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3119500
  12. Abrate, S., "Impact on Laminated Composites: Recent Advances," Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol.47, No. 11, 1994, pp. 517-543. DOI:10.1115/1.3111065 https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3111065
  13. Deka, L.J., Bartus,S.D. and Vaidya, U.K., "Damage evolution and energy absorption of FRP plates subjected to ballistic impact using a numerical model", 9th Int. LS-DYNA Users Conf., 2008.
  14. http://www.skchemicals.co.kr/kr/outside/carbonfiber/sub1-1-3.html
  15. Cho, H.J., You, W.Y., Lee, S.J., Kim, I.G., Woo, K. and Kim, J.H., "Study on Prediction of Perforation Energy for Carbon/Epoxy Composite Laminates Subjected to High Velocity Impact using Quasi-static Perforation Equation", Proc. 2012 Asia-Pacific Int. Symposium on Aerospace Technology, Jeju, Korea, 2012.
  16. LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual, Version-971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, 2006.
  17. Fawaz, Z., Zheng, W. and Behdinan, K., "Numerical Simulation of Normal and Oblique Ballistic Impact on Ceramic Composite Armours," Composite Structures, Vol. 63, 2004, pp. 387-395. DOI:10.1016/S0263-8223(03)00187-9 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-8223(03)00187-9
  18. Cantwell, W.J. and Morton, J., "Comparison of the Low and High Velocity Impact Response of CFRP," Composites, Vol. 20, Issue 6, 1989, pp. 545-551. DOI:10.1016/0010-4361(89)90913-0 https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-4361(89)90913-0
  19. Cantwell, W.J. and Morton, J., "The Impact Resistance of Composite Materials - A Review," Composites, Vol. 22, Issue 5, 1991, pp. 347-362. DOI:10.1016/0010-4361(91)90549-V https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-4361(91)90549-V
  20. Richardson, M.O.W. and Wisheart, M.J., "Review of low-velocity impact properties of composite materials," Composite Part A, Vol.27, 1996, pp. 1123-1131. DOI:10.1016/1359-835X(96)00074-7 https://doi.org/10.1016/1359-835X(96)00074-7
  21. Agarwal, S., Singh, K.K. and Sarkar, P.K., "Impact Damage on Fibre-reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite - A Review," J. of Composite Materials, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2014, pp. 317-332. DOI: 10.1177/0021998312472217 https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998312472217
  22. Lee S. -W. R and Sun C. T, "Dynamic Penetration of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates by a Blunt-ended Projectile", Composite Science and Technology, Vol. 49, 1993, pp. 561-588. DOI:10.1016/0266-3538(93)90069-S
  23. Morye S.S., Hine, P.J., Duckett, R.A., Carr, D.J. and Ward, I.M., "Modeling of the Energy Absorption by Polymer Composites under Ballistic Impact," Composite Science and Technology, Vol. 60, Issue 14, 2000, pp. 2631-2642. DOI:10.1016/S0266-3538(00)00139-1 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-3538(00)00139-1
  24. Cheeseman, B.A. and Bogetti, T.A., "Ballistic Impact into Fabric and Compliant Composite Laminates", Composite Structures, Vol. 61, Issues 1-2, 2003, pp. 161-173. DOI:10.1016/S0263-8223(03)00029-1 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-8223(03)00029-1
  25. Choi, H.Y. and Chang, F.K., "Impact Damage Threshold of Laminated Composites," Applied Mechanics Division, Vol.107, 1990, pp. 31-35. DOI: 10.1177/002199839202601408
  26. Yen, C.-F., "Ballistic Impact Modeling of Composite Materials", 9th Int. LS-DYNA Conf., 2002.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Agency for Defense Development