- Volume 16 Issue 2
In the present study, an unstructured mixed mesh flow solver was used to conduct a numerical prediction of the aerodynamic performance of the S-76 rotor in hover. For the present mixed mesh methodology, the near-body flow domain was modeled by using body-fitted prismatic/tetrahedral cells while Cartesian mesh cells were filled in the off-body region. A high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme was employed to better resolve the flow characteristics in the off-body flow region. An overset mesh technique was adopted to transfer the flow variables between the two different mesh regions, and computations were carried out for three different blade configurations including swept-taper, rectangular, and swept-taper-anhedral tip shapes. The results of the simulation were compared against experimental data, and the computations were also made to investigate the effect of the blade tip Mach number. The detailed flow characteristics were also examined, including the tip-vortex trajectory, vortex core size, and first-passing tip vortex position that depended on the tip shape.
Unstructured Mixed Meshes;Overset Mesh Technique;High-Order WENO Scheme;Sikorsky-76 Rotor Blade
- Shen, Y. Q. and Zha G. C., "A Robust Seventh-order WENO Scheme and Its Applications", AIAA paper 2008-0757, 2008.
- Karypis, G. and Kumar, V., "Multilevel k-way Partitioning Schemes for Irregular Graphs", Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1998, pp. 96-129. https://doi.org/10.1006/jpdc.1997.1404
- Balch, D. T. and Lombardi, J., Experimental Study of Main Rotor Tip Geometry and Tail Rotor Interactions in Hover Vol I - TEXT and FIGURES, NASA CR-177336-Vol-1, 1985.
- Le Pape, A. and Beaumier, P., "Numerical Optimization of Helicopter Rotor Aerodynamic Performance in Hover", Aerospace Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2005, pp. 191-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2004.09.004
- Aiken, E. W., Ormiston, R. A. and Young, L. A., "Future Directions in Rotorcraft Technology at Ames Research Center", 56th annual forum of the American helicopter Society, Virginia Beach, VA, 2000.
- Brocklehurst, A., Steijl, R. and Barakos, G., "Using CFD to Understand and Evaluate Tail Rotor Blade Designs", AHS aeromechanics specialists' Conference, San Francisco, CA, 2008
- Jung, M. K. and Kwon, O. J., "Development of a 2-D Flow Solver on Unstructured and Adaptive Cartesian Meshes", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 26, No. 12, 2012, pp. 3989-3997. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-012-0893-6
- Toro, E. F., Riemann Solvers and Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics: A Practical Introduction, Springer-Verlag, 1999.
- Shu, C. W. and Osher, S, "Efficient Implementation of Essentially Non-Oscillatory Shock-Capturing Schemes", Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 77, No. 2, 1988, pp. 439-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9991(88)90177-5
- Shu, C. W. and Osher, S, "Efficient Implementation of Weighted ENO Schemes," Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 126, No. 1, 1996, pp. 202-228. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.1996.0130
- Visbal, M. R., and Gaitonde, D. V., "On the Use of Higher-Order Finite-Difference Schemes on Curvilinear and Deforming Meshes", Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 181, No. 1, 2002, pp. 155-185. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.2002.7117
- Barth, T. and Frederickson, P. O., "Higher Order Solution of the Euler Equations on Unstructured Grids Using Quadratic Reconstruction", 28th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA paper 90-0013, 1990.
- Jiang, G. S. and Shu, C. W., "Efficient Implementation of Weighted ENO Schemes", Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 126, 1996, pp. 202-228. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.1996.0130
- Weller, W. H., Experimental Investigation of Effects of Blade Tip Geometry on Loads and Performance for an Articulated Rotor System, NASA-TP-1303, 1979.
- Stroub, R. H., Rabbott, J. P. and Niebanck, C. F., "Rotor Blade Tip Shape Effects on Performance and Control Loads from Full-Scale Wind Tunnel Testing", Journal of the American Helicopter Society, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1979, pp. 28-35. https://doi.org/10.4050/JAHS.24.28
- Jepson, D., Moffitt, R., Hilzinger, K. and Bissell J., Analysis and Correlation of Test Data from an Advanced Technology Rotor System, NASA-CR-3714 c.1, 1980.
- Kim, K. C. and Chopar, I., "Aeroelastic Analysis of Swept, Anhedral, and Tapered Tip Rotor Blades", Journal of the American Helicopter Society, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1991, pp. 15-30.
- Yen, J. G., "Effects of Blade Tip Shape on Dynamics, Cost, Weight, Aerodynamic Performance, and Aeroelastic Response", Journal of the American Helicopter Society, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1994, pp. 37-45. https://doi.org/10.4050/JAHS.39.37
- Brocklehurst, A. and Barakos, G. N., "A Review of Helicopter Rotor Blade Tip Shapes", Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 56, 2013, pp. 35-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paerosci.2012.06.003
- Balch, D. T. and Lombardi, J., Experimental Study of Main Rotor Tip Geometry and Tail Rotor Interactions in Hover Vol II - RUN LOG and TABULATED DATA, NASA CR-177336-Vol-2, 1985.
- Shur, M. L., Strelets, M. K., Travin, A. K., and Spalart, P. R., "Turbulence Modeling in Rotating and Curved Channels: Assessing the Spalart-Shur Correction", AIAA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2000, pp. 784-792. https://doi.org/10.2514/2.1058
- Venkatakrishnan, V., "Convergence to Steady State Solutions of the Euler Equations on Unstructured Grids with Limiters", Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 118, No. 1, 1995, pp. 120-130. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.1995.1084
- Aftosmis, M. J., Solution Adaptive Cartesian Grid Methods for Aerodynamic Flows with Complex Geometries, Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Lecture Series, 1997.
- Liu, X. D., Osher, S. and Chan, T., "Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory Schemes", Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 115, 1994, pp. 200-212. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.1994.1187
- Buning, P. G. and Nichols, R. H., OVERFLOW User's Manual, NASA Langley Research Center, 2003.
- Wissink, A. M, Sitaraman, J., Sankaran, V., Mavriplis, D. J. and Pulliam, T. H., "A Multi-Code Python-Based Infrastructure for Overset CFD with Adaptive Cartesian Grids", 46th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, AIAA 2008-927, 2008.
- Mavriplis, D. J. and Venkatakrishnan, V., "A Unified Multigrid Solver for the Navier-Stokes Equations on Mixed Element Meshes", International Journal for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 8, 1997, pp. 247-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/10618569708940807
- Hornung, R. D., Wissink, A. M. and Kohn, S. R., "Managing Complex Data and Geometry in Parallel Structured AMR Applications", Engineering with Computers, Vol. 22, No. 3-4, 2006, pp. 181-195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00366-006-0038-6
- Pulliam, T. H., "Euler and Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes Codes: ARC2D and ARC3D", Computational Fluid Dynamics User Workshop, 1984.
- Schluter, J. U., Wu, X., Weide, E., Hahn, S., Alonso, J. J., and Pitsch, H., "Multi-Code Simulations: A Generalized Coupling Approach", 17th AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA 2005-4997, 2005.
- Leishman, J. G., Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2006.
연구 과제 주관 기관 : KAIST, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information