Changes of biochemical components and physiological activities of coffee beans according to different roasting conditions

커피 볶음 정도에 따른 생화학적 성분 및 생리활성의 변화

  • Nam, Sanghae (Division of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Kang, Suji (Division of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology)
  • 남상해 (경남과학기술대학교 식품과학부) ;
  • 강수지 (경남과학기술대학교 식품과학부)
  • Received : 2015.01.06
  • Accepted : 2015.03.11
  • Published : 2015.04.30


Four different kinds of coffee beans (CS, Colombia supremo; EY, Ethiopia yirgacheffee; IM, Indonesia mandheling; and IMM, India monsooned malabar) were roasted at 200 and $250^{\circ}C$ for 10, 15, and 20 min. To determine the optimum roasting conditions, various components of the coffee beans such as pyrazines produced during the roasting, and their antioxidant and antidiabetic effects were analyzed. The different roasting condition did not affect on the concentration of caffeine. However, the amount of 5-caffeoylquinic acid and the total phenolics decreased significantly, at a greater temperature and a longer roasting time. The greatest amount of pyrazines was produced from the IMM however, the amount of pyrazines decreased rapidly at $250^{\circ}C$ according to increasing in roasting time. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity was mostly 80% more effective than that of BHT and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol activities at the same concentration. In the case of the FRAP assay, the reducing power of the coffee slightly decreased at a greater temperature pand longer time. While the inhibitory effect on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase was negligible, the activity decreased by more than 80% when the coffee beans were roasted at $250^{\circ}C$ for 20 min. The inhibitory effect on ${\alpha}$-amylase showed similar results. Taken together, the optimum roasting conditions were determined to be $200^{\circ}C$ and 15 min, which provided the best physiological activity and nutty and chocolatey aromas from the pyrazine of coffee.


Supported by : 경남과학기술대학교


  1. Kim HK, Hwang SY, Yoon SB, Chun DS, Kong SK, Kang KO (2007) A study of the characteristics of different coffee beans by roasting and extracting condition. Korean J Food Nutr, 20, 14-19
  2. Lee MJ, Kim SE, Kim JH, Lee SW, Yeum DM (2013) A study of coffee bean characteristics and coffee flavor in relation to roasting. Korean J Food Nutr, 42, 255-261
  3. Moon JW, Cho JS (1999) Change in flavor characteristics and shelf-life of roasted coffee in different packaging conditions during storage. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 31, 441-447
  4. Baik HJ, Ko YS (1996) Studies on the aroma components of roasted and ground coffee. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 28, 15-18
  5. Kim JY, Han YS (2009) Influence of roasting time on antibacterial and antioxidative effects of coffee extract. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 25, 496-505
  6. Hwang SH, Kim KS, Kang HJ, Kim MJ (2013) Phenolic compound contents and antioxidative effects on dutch coffee by extraction time. Korean J Public Health Research, 39, 21-29
  7. Park JY (2013) Antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of pan bread with green coffee bean powder. MS Thesis. Sejong University, Korea, p 26-42
  8. Park SS, Lee DH, Kim KI (2012) A study on the quality of roast coffee bean according to methods of storage. Korean J Soc Coffee Industry, 1, 31-36
  9. Suh YS, Lee SH, Shang Y, Yoon JR, Lee WJ (2014) Change in antioxidant activities and flavor patterns of Coffea arabica beans during roasting. Korean J Food Preserv, 21, 224-230
  10. Kim KH, Kim AH, Lee JK, Chun MS, Noh BS (2014) Analysis of flavor pattern of various coffee beans using electronic nose. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 46, 1-6
  11. Choi YM, Yoon HH (2011) Sensory characteristics of espresso coffee according to green coffee processing. Korean J Food Cookery Sci, 27, 773-781
  12. Kim KJ, Park SK (2006) Changes in major chemical constituents of green coffee beans during the roasting. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 38, 153-158
  13. Holscher W. (1996) Comparison of some aroma impact compounds in roasted coffee and coffee surrogates. R. Soc. Chem, 197, 239-244
  14. Lee JH, Kim SS (2000) Changes in methyl pyrazines of cocoa beans during microwave roasting. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 32, 654-658
  15. Cheigh HS, Nam JH, Kim TJ, Kwon TW (1975) Studies on Soong-Neung flavor. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 7, 15-21
  16. Bradbury A, Weers M (1995) Non-volatile compounds analysis in coffee. Kaft Eur Anal Method, 5-17
  17. Folin O, Denis W (1912) On phosphotungstic phosphomolybdic compounds as color reagent. J Biological Chem, 12, 239-249
  18. Giovanni C, Manuela C, Gloria C, Filippo M, Luigi O, Massimo R, Gianni S, Veronica S, Giacomo T, Sauro V (2012) Optimization of espresso machine parameters through the analysis of coffee odorants by HS-SPME-GC/MS. J Food Chem, 135, 1127-1133
  19. Heo JC, Lee DY, Son MS, Yun CY, Hwang JS, Kang SW, Kim TH, Lee SH (2008) Effects of mole crickets (Gryllotalpa orientalis) extracts on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. J Life Sci, 18, 509-514
  20. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med, 26, 1231-1237
  21. Benzie IFF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power" : The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem, 239, 70-76
  22. Matsui T, Ueda T, Oki T, Sugita K, Terahara N, Matsumoto K (2001) ${\alpha}$-Glucosidase inhibitory action of natural acylated anthocyanins. 1. Survey of natural pigments with potent inhibitory activity. J Agr Food Chem, 49, 1948-1951
  23. Gao H, Kawabata J (2005) ${\alpha}$-Glucosidase inhibition of 6-hydroxyflavones. Part 3. Synthesis and evaluation of 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl-containingflavonoid analogs and 6-aminoflavones as ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inbibitors. Bioorg Med Chem, 13, 1661-1671
  24. Clifford MN, Wight J (1976) The measurement of feruloylquinic acids and caffeoylquinic acids in coffee beans. J Sci Food Agric, 27, 73-84
  25. Halliwell B, Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Aruoma OI (1995) The characterization of antioxidants. Food Chem Toxicol, 33, 601-617
  26. Imai J, Ide N, Nagae S, Moriguchi T, Matsuura H, Itakura Y (1994) Antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of aged garlic extract and its constituents. Plant Med, 60, 417-420
  27. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1997) Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci, 2, 152-159
  28. Farah A, Donangelo CM (2006) Phenolic compound in coffee. Braz J Plant Physiol, 18, 23-26
  29. Ku Madihah KY, Zaibunnisa AH, Norashikin S, Rozita O, Misnawi J (2013) Optimization of roasting conditions for high-quality Arabica coffee. International Food Res J, 20, 1623-1627
  30. Kalt W (2005) Effects of production and processing factors on major fruit and vegetable antioxidant. J Food Sci, 70, 11-19
  31. Perron NR, Brumaghim JL (2009) A review of the antioxidant mechanisms of polyphenol compounds related to iron binding. Cell Biochem Biophys, 53, 75-100
  32. Perez Hernandez LM, Chavez Quiroz K, Medina Juarez LA, Meza NG (2012) Phenolic characterization, melanoidins and antioxidant activity of some commercial coffee from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. J Mexican Chemical Soc, 56, 430-435
  33. Kwon JW, Lee HK, Park HJ, Kwon TO, Choi HR, Song JY (2011) Screening of biological activities to different ethanol extracts of Rubus coreanus Miq. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci, 19, 325-333
  34. Baron AD (1998) Postprandial hyperglycemia and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitors. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 40, 51-55
  35. Shinde J, Taldone T, Barletta M, Kunaparaju N, Hu B, Kumar S, Placido J, William ZS (2008) ${\alpha}$-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Syaygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels seed kernel in vitro and in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Carbohyd Res, 343, 1278-1281
  36. Lee MH, Lee JS, Yang HC (2008) ${\alpha}$-Amylase inhibitory activity of flower and leaf extracts from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 37, 42-47
  37. Anderson RA, Polansky MM (2002) Tea enhances insulin activity. J Agric Food Chem, 50, 7182-7186