The Effects of GMAW Parameters on Penetration, Hardness and Microstructure of AS3678-A350 High Strength Steel

Kaewsakul, Nut;Putrontaraj, Rungsuk;Kimapong, Kittipong

  • Received : 2015.03.23
  • Accepted : 2015.05.21
  • Published : 2015.06.30


This research aims to study the effects of various welding parameters in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process on welding penetration, microstructure and hardness of AS3578-A350 high strength steel with the thickness of 10 mm. The welding process parameters were a welding current of 100-200A, an arc voltage of 20-30V, a welding speed of 20-60 cm/min and a gas shielding type of Ar and $Ar+CO_2$. The summarized experimental results are as follows. An increase of the welding current and voltage affected to increase the penetration depth of the joint. However, when the welding speed was decreased, it increased the penetration depth of the joint. Using the Ar gas for shielding the weld area, produced the higher penetration depth and the less narrow weld bead than the joint that was shielded by the mix gas of $Ar+CO_2$. The variation of the welding process parameters affected to produce the various microstructures of weld metal and heat affected zone and also showed the various kind of hardness along the weld joint.


gas metal arc welding;high strength steel;depth penetration;Microstructure


  1. I. S. Kim, W. H. Kwon and C. E. Park, "The Effects of Welding Process Parameters on Weld Bead Width in GMAW Processes," Journal of KWS, Vol. 14, No. 4, August 1996.
  2. Biswajit Das, B. Debbarma, R. N. Rai, S. C. Saha, "Influence of Process Parameters on Depth of Penetration of Welded Joint in MIG Welding Processes," International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 10, 2013.
  3. S. Thiru Chitrambalam1, Tan Wee Ming, Imran Syakir Mohamma and Shafizal bin Mat, "A Study on Relationship between Process Variables and Weld Penetration for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)," ICE SEAM. Solo-Indonesia, October 3-4, 2011.
  4. Erdal Karadeniz, Ugur Ozsarac, Ceyhan Yildiz, "The effect of process parameters on penetration in gas metal arc welding processes," Materials and Design 28 (2007), pp. 649-656, 2005.
  5. Izzatul Aini Ibrahim, Syarul Asraf Mohamat, Amalina Amir, Abdul Ghalib, "The Effect of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes on different welding parameters," Procedia Engineering 41, pp. 1502-1506, 2012.
  6. I.S. Kim, J.S. Son, I.G. Kim, J.Y. Kim, O.S. Kim, "A study on relationship between process variables and bead penetration for robotic CO2 arc welding," Journal of Materials Processing Technology 136, pp. 139-145, 2002.
  7. Mohanty, A. Laha, B. Oraon, G. Mazumdar and S. Datt, "NEURAL MODELLING OF THE INFLUENCE OF WELDING PARAMETERS IN ARC WELDING PROCESSES," Proceedings of the 3rd BSME-ASME International Conference on Thermal Engineering, December 20-22, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2006.
  8. X.L. Wan, R. Wei, K.M. Wu., Effect of acicular ferrite formation on grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone, Materails characterization 61, pp. 726-731, 2010.
  9. D.V. Kiran, B. Basu, A. De., "Influence of process variables on weld bead quality in two wire tandem submerged arc welding of HSLA steel," Journal of Materials Processing Technology 212, pp. 2041-2050, 2012.
  10. Rajkumar Duhan, Rajesh Nandal, "A Study of Microstructure and Hardness in AISI 50110 (EN 31) Welded Joints Using Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) Welding," International Journal of Engineering Sciences Paradigms and Researches, Vol. 8, Issue 1, October 2013.
  11. Belma Fakic, Adisa Buric, Branka Muminovic, Prof.dr. Sreto Tomasevic, "CHANGE OF PHYSICAL-METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES OF LOWALLOY STEEL 16Mo3 IN THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE IN WELDING PROCESSES MMA AND MAG," 15th International Research/Expert Conference, pp. 129-132, September 12-18, 2011, Czech Republic.
  12. P.Sathiyal, S.Aravindan, P.M. Ajith, B.Arivazhagan, A. Noorul Haq., "Microstructural characteristics on bead on plate welding of AISI 904 L super austenitic stainless steel using Gas metal arc welding process," International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 189-199, 2010.
  13. P. Kah, R. Suoranta, J. Martikainen, "Advanced gas metal arc welding processes," Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67, pp. 655-674, 2013.
  14. Soo Kim, Joon-Sik Son, Prasad K.D.V. Yarlagadda, A study on the quality improvement of robotic GMAwelding process, Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing 19, pp. 567-572, 2003.
  15. Ghalib Tham, Mohamad Yazman Yaakub, Sunhaji Kiyai Abas, Yupiter HPManurung, Bukhari Abu Jalil, Predicting the GMAW 3F T-Fillet Geometry and Its Welding Parameter, Procedia Engineering 41, pp. 1794-1799, 2012.
  16. I.S. Kim, J.S. Son, C.E. Park, C.W. Lee, Yarlagadda K.D.V. Prasad, "A study on prediction of bead height in robotic arc welding using a neural network," Journal of Materials Processing Technology 130-131, pp. 229-234, 2002.
  17. Petr HRABE, Rostislav CHOTEBORSKY, Monika NAVRATILOVA, "INFLUENCE OF WELDING PARAMETERS ON GEOMETRY OF WELD DEPOSIT BEAD," International Conference on Economic Engineering and Manufacturing Systems, Brasov, November 26-27, 2009.
  18. A. Honarbakhsh-Raouf and H.R. Ghazvinloo, "Influence of wire feeding speed, welding speed and preheating temperature on hardness and microstructure of weld of RQT 701-British steel produced by FCAW," Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 5, May 2010.