DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

  • Ozelcam, H. ;
  • Kirkpinar, F. ;
  • Tan, K.
  • Received : 2014.11.15
  • Accepted : 2015.04.11
  • Published : 2015.10.01

Abstract

The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in crude protein content value between fresh caramba (12.83%) and silage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest $ME_{CN}$ (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and $ME_{ADF}$ values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants.

Keywords

Caramba;Chemical Composition;Digestibility;Metabolizable Energy

References

  1. Aganga, A. A., U. J. Omphile, T. Thema, and L. Z. Wilson. 2004. Chemical composition of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) at different stages of growth and ryegrass silages with additives. J. Biol. Sci. 4:645-649. https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2004.645.649
  2. Amaral, G. A., G. V. Kozloski, A. B. Santos, D. S. Castagnino, A. C. Fluck, R. Farenzena, T. P. Alves, and F. R. Mesquita. 2011. Metabolizable protein and energy supply in lambs fed annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) supplemented with sources of protein and energy. J. Agric. Sci. 149:519-527. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002185961000122X
  3. Amrane, R. and B. Michalet-Doreau. 1993. Effect of maturity stage of Italian rye grass and lucerne on ruminal nitrogen degradability. Ann. Zootech. 42:31-37. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:19930103
  4. AOAC. 1990. Official Method of Analysis. 15 th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA. pp.66-88.
  5. Baldinger, L., R. Baumung, W. Zollitsch, and W. F. Knaus. 2011. Italian ryegrass silage in winter feeding of organic dairy cows: forage intake, milk yield and composition. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91:435-442. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4203
  6. Ben-Ghedalia, D., R. Solomon, J. Miron, E. Yosef, Z. Zomberg, E. Zukerman, A. Greenberg, and T. Kipnis. 2001. Effect of water salinity on the composition and in vitro digestibility of winterannual ryegrass grown in the Arava desert. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 91:139-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00218-8
  7. Bernard, J. K., J. W. West, and D. S. Trammell. 2002. Effect of replacing corn silage with annual ryegrass silage on nutrient digestibility, intake, and milk yield for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2277-2282. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74307-5
  8. Bernard, J. K. 2003. Feeding ryegrass silage in the South East US. Proceedings of the 40th annual Florida Dairy Production Conference, 29-30 April, 2003. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. pp.45-51.
  9. Boyd, J. A., J. K. Bernard, J. W. West, and A. H. Parks. 2008. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on sorghum and ryegrass silage and different energy supplements. Am. Regist. Prof., Anim. Sci. 24:349-354.
  10. Catanese, F., R. A. Distel, and M. Arzadun. 2009. Preferences of lambs offered Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) herbage as choices. Grass Forage Sci. 64:304-309. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2009.00698.x
  11. Cooke, K. M., J. K. Bernard, and J. W. West. 2008. Performance of dairy cows fed annual ryegrass silage and corn silage with steam-flaked or ground corn. J. Dairy Sci. 91:2417-2422. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0715
  12. Crampton, E. W. and L. A. Maynard. 1938. The relation of cellulose and lignin content to the nutritive value of animal feeds. J. Nutr. 15:383-395. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/15.4.383
  13. De Villiers, J. F., T. J. Dugmore, and J. J. Wandrag. 2002. The value of supplementary feding to pre-weaned and weaned lambs grazing Italian ryegrass. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 32:30-37.
  14. Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft (DLG). 1991. Feed value tables for ruminants (6th edn.), DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, ISBN 3-7690-0483-3.
  15. Fariani, A., L. Warly, T. Matsui, T. Fujihara, and T. Harumoto. 1994. Rumen degradability of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, L) harvested at three different growth stages in sheep. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 7:41-48. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1994.41
  16. Fonseca, A. J. M., A. R. J. Cabrita, C. S. S. Nogueira, D. S. P. Melo, Z. M. C. Lopes, and J. M. F. Abreu. 2005. Lactation responses of dairy cows to whole-crop wheat or ryegrass silages. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 118:153-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.10.006
  17. Fulkerson, W. J., K. Slack, D. W. Hennessy, and G. M. Hough. 1998. Nutrients in ryegrass (Lolium spp.), white clover (Trifolium repens) and kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pastures in relation to season and stage of regrowth in a subtropical environment. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 38:227-240. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA97161
  18. Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fibre analyses. Agriculture Handbook No: 379, Washington DC, USA. pp.829-835.
  19. Hannaway, D., S. Fransen, J. Cropper, M. Teel, M. Chaney, T. Griggs, R. Halse, J. Hart, P. Cheeke, D. Hansen, R. Klinger, and W. Lane. 1999. Annual ryegrass. http://eesc.orst.edu/AgComWebFile/EdMat/PNW501.pdf Accessed May 3, 2010.
  20. Kesiktas, M. 2010. In Karaman different sowing dates and nitrogen fertilizer application of feed yield to the influence of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum westerwoldicum caramba). Cukurova Uni., Inst. Sci. Technol. (Master thesis), 59 p, Adana.
  21. Kirchgessner, M. and R. J. Kellner. 1981. Estimation of feed values of forages with cellulase method. Landwirtsch Forsch, 34:276-281.
  22. Lenuweit, U. and B. Gharadjedaghi. 2002. Biological general data available for Lolium perenne, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis und Trifolium repens. Society for Fieldecology and Conservation Planning. GmbH, Bayreuth.
  23. Marais, J. P. and D. C. W. Goodenough. 2000. Nutritive value and dry matter yield of annual ryegrass 121c. S Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 30 (Supplement 1):74-75.
  24. Mccormick, M. E., E. B. Morgan, T. F. Brown, and A. M. Saxton. 1990. Relationships between silage digestibility and milk production among Holstein cows.In: Proc. Forage Grassland Conf.Am. Forage Grassland Council, Belleville, VA, USA. pp. 60-64.
  25. Mccormick, M. E., G. J. Cuomo, and D. C. Blouin. 1998. Annual ryegrass stored as balage, haylage or hay for lactating dairy cows. J. Prod. Agric. 11:293-300. https://doi.org/10.2134/jpa1998.0293
  26. Miller, L. A., J. M. Moorby, D. R. Davies, M. O. Humphreys, N. D. Scollan, J. C. MacRae, and M. K. Theodorou. 2001. Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.): milk production from latelactation dairy cows. Grass Forage Sci. 56:383-394. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2494.2001.00288.x
  27. Miyashige, T., T. Takezawa, and S. Takizawa. 1989. Effect of cutting stage and drying temperature on the rumen degradability of crude protein in dehydrated hays of Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 2:336-337. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1989.336
  28. Montossi, F., J. Hodgson, S. T. Morris, D. F. Risso, and I. L. Gordon. 2001. A comparative study of herbage intake, ingestive behaviour and diet selection, and effects of condensed tannins upon body and wool growth in lambs grazing Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) dominant swards. J. Agric. Sci. 136:241-251. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859601008668
  29. Nishino, N., N. Okamoto, and S. Uchida. 1995. Nitrogen utilization of goats fed silage with or without supplements having different rumen degradability. Grassland Sci. 41:202-206.
  30. NRC. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle: (Seventh Revised Ed.), National Academy Press Washington, DC, USA. pp. 258-280.
  31. Ohshima, M., T. Nagatomo, H. Kubota, H. Tano, T. Okajima, and R. Kayama. 1988. Comparison of nutritive values between hays and silages prepared from Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and its pres cake using goats. J. Japan Grassl Sci. 33:396-401.
  32. Ohshima, M., K. Miyase, N. Nishino, and H. Yokota. 1991. Ruminal acid concentrations of goats fed hays and silages prepared from Italian ryegrass and its pressed cake. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 4:59-65. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1991.59
  33. Redfearn, D. D., B. C. Venuto, W. D. Pitman, M. W. Alison, and J. D. Ward. 2002. Cultivar and environment effects on annual ryegrass forage yield, yield distribution, and nutritive value. Crop Sci. 42:2049-2054. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2002.2049
  34. Repetto, J. L., C. Cajarville, J. D'Alessandro, A. Curbelo, C. Soto, and D. Garin. 2005. Effect of wilting and ensiling on ruminal degradability of temperate grass and legume mixtures. Anim. Res. 54:73-80. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2005007
  35. Ridla, M. and S. Uchida. 1998. Effects of combined treatments of lactic acid bacteria and cell wall degrading enzymes on fermentation and composition of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam) silage. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 11: 277-284. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1998.277
  36. Schiemann, R. 1971. Methodological guidelines on performing digestion attempt the feed value estimation. Arch. Tierernah. 31:1-19.
  37. Shao, T., Z. X. Zhang, M. Shimojo, T. Wang, and Y. Masuda. 2005. Comparison of fermentation characteristics of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) during the early stage of ensiling. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1727-1734. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1727
  38. SPSS. 2002. SPSS for Windows advanced statistics release 11.5v, Chicago, IL, USA.
  39. Tan, M. and O. Mentese. 2003. The anatomical structure and chemical composition of forage crops, the effects of nutritive value. Ataturk Univ. J. Agric. Fac. 34:97-103.
  40. TSI. 2004. Turkish Standard Institute, Animal feeds-metabolic energy determination (Chemical Method). TSI Nr: 9610, Ankara, Turkey.
  41. Valente, M. E., G. Borreani, P. G. Peiretti, and E. Tabacco. 2000. Codified morphological stage for predicting digestibility of Italian ryegrass during the spring cycle. Agron. J. 92:967-973. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2000.925967x
  42. Van Dorland, H. A., H. R. Wettstein, H. Leuenberger, and M. Kreuzer. 2006. Comparison of fresh and ensiled white and red clover added to ryegrass on energy and protein utilization of lactating cows. Anim. Sci. 82:691-700. https://doi.org/10.1079/ASC200685
  43. Van Niekerk, W. A., A. Hassen, and R. J. Coertze. 2008. Diet quality, intake and growth performance of South African Mutton Merino sheep on Triticum$\times$Secale and Lolium multiflorum pastures at different grazing pressures. Trop. Grassl. 42:54-59.
  44. Ximena Valderrama, L. and G. Rene Anrique. 2011. In situ rumen degradation kinetics of high-protein forage crops in temperate climates. Chilean J. Agric. Res. 71:572-577. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392011000400012
  45. Zaman, M. S., Z. Mir, P. S. Mir, A. El-Meadawya, T. A. McAllister, K. J. Cheng, D. Zobell, and G. W. Mathison. 2002. Performance and carcass characteristics of beef cattle fed diets containing silage from intercropped barley and annual ryegrass.Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 99:1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00148-7
  46. Zhang, Y., L. D. Bunting, L. C. Kappel, and J. L. Hafley. 1995. Influence of nitrogen fertilization and defoliation frequency on nitrogen constituents and feeding value of annual ryegrass. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2474-2482. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7382474x

Cited by

  1. Forage Crop Lolium multiflorum Assisted Synthesis of AgNPs and Their Bioactivities Against Poultry Pathogenic Bacteria in In Vitro vol.58, pp.4, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-018-0755-8
  2. Comparison of silage and hay of dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) fed to Thai native beef bulls vol.50, pp.7, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1582-y
  3. Integrating Airborne Hyperspectral, Topographic, and Soil Data for Estimating Pasture Quality Using Recursive Feature Elimination with Random Forest Regression vol.10, pp.7, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071117

Acknowledgement

Supported by : University Animal Ethics Committee