Changes of Meat Quality and Antioxidation Activity in the Loin and Ham of Korean Native Black Pigs during Frozen Storage

재래흑돼지고기의 냉동저장기간 동안의 품질 및 항산화 특성 변화

Gil, Juae;Kim, Dongwook;Kim, Hee-Jin;Yoon, Ji-Yeol;Pak, Jae-In;Park, Beom-Young;Ham, Jun-Sang;Jang, Aera

  • Received : 2015.05.01
  • Accepted : 2015.06.29
  • Published : 2015.07.30


This study was carried out to evaluate changes in the meat quality and antioxidation activity in the loin and ham of Korean Native Black Pigs (KNBP) during frozen storage at −18℃ for 150 days. The pH value of the loin was decreased as storage days progressed, while the pH value of the ham showed no consistent changes with storage days. The lightness (L*) of the loin did not show any significant reduction until day 120, whereas L* of the ham was significantly declined throughout the storage period (p<0.05). The redness (a*) values of the loin and ham were significantly decreased as storage progressed. The water holding capacity of the loin was decreased by day 30 and that value was maintained until the end of storage. The initial total numbers of microorganisms in the loin and ham were 4.88 and 5.16 Log CFU/g, respectively and these numbers were significantly decreased by day 30 (p<0.05). The levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (a measurement of lipid oxidation) in the loin and ham ranged from 0.057-0.069 and 0.052-0.087 mg MDA/kg meat, respectively, until storage day 150. Volatile basic nitrogen values of the loin and ham ranged from 15.13-16.55 and 16.05-16.23 mg%. Oxygen radical absorbance capacities and carnosine contents of the loin and ham were significantly decreased during frozen storage for 3 months (p<0.05). In summary, the meat quality of the loin and ham from KNBP was somewhat decreased during frozen storage. However, the levels of antioxidants and dipeptides with antioxidant activity were significantly decreased in pork loin and ham during frozen storage.


Antioxidation;carnosine;frozen storage;Korean Native Black Pigs (KNBP);quality


  1. Seol, K. H., Kim, K. H., Kim, Y. H., Yeom, K. E. and Lee, M. H. 2014. Effect of temperature and relative humidity in refrigerator on quality traits and storage characteristics of pre-packed Hanwoo loin. J. Agric. Sci. 41, 415-424.
  2. Song, B. C., Joo, N. S., Aldini, G. and Yeum, K. J. 2014. Biological functions of histidine-dipeptides and metabolic syndrome. Nutr. Res. Pract. 8, 3-10.
  3. Song, H. M., Seo, M. S., Kim, H. M., Ahn, M. S. and Lee, Y. T. 2002. Antioxidative activity of barley polyphenol extract (BPE) separated from pearling byproducts. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technol. 34, 889-892.
  4. Turner, E. W., Paynter, W. D., Montie, E. J., Bessert, M. W., Struck, G. M. and Olson, F. C. 1954. Use of the 2-thio-barbituric acid reagent to measure rancidity in frozen pork. Food Technol. 8, 326-330.
  5. Winger, R. J. and Fennema, O. 1976. Tenderness and water holding properties of beef muscle as influenced by freezing and subsequent storage at 3 or 15℃. J. Food Sci. 41, 1433-1438.
  6. Witte, V. C., Krause, G. F. and Baile, M. E. 1970. A new extraction method for determining 2-thiobarbituric acid values of pork and beef during storage. J. Food Sci. 35, 582-585.
  7. Wu, C., Duckett, S. K., Neel, J. P. S., Fontenot, J. P. and Clapham, W. M. 2008. Influence of finishing systems on hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in beef. Meat Sci. 80, 662-667.
  8. Yang, S. Y., Kim, Y. H. and Lee, M. H. 1989. The effect of cryoprotectants on the quality changes of pork and beef during frozen storage. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technol. 21, 364-369.
  9. Ku, S. K., Hwang, S. H., Lim, S. D., Lee, K. H. and Kim, Y. B. 2013. Nutritional characteristics and quality changes of duck by-products during frozen storage at −20℃. Kor. J. Food Sci. An. 33, 109-118.
  10. Larson, R. A. 1988. The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochem. 27, 969-973.
  11. Lefebvre, N., Chantal, T., Chaibinneau, R. and Pitte, J. P. G. 1994. Improvement of shelf-life and wholesomeness of ground beef by irradiation. Meat Sci. 36, 371-380.
  12. Moon, Y. H. 2013. Changes in physical properties of ham and loin from low-fat pork cuts during chilling after thawing. J. East Asian Soc. Dietary Life 23, 487-495.
  13. Mora, L., Sentandreu, M. Á. and Toldrá, F. 2008. Contents of creatine, creatinine and carnosine in porcine muscles of different metabolic types. Meat Sci. 79, 709-715.
  14. Nakazato, M., Asai, J., Miyazato, M., Matsukura, S., Kangawa, K. and Matsuo, H. 1990. Isolation and identification of islet amyloid polypeptide in normal human pancreas. Regul. Pept. 31, 179-186.
  15. Pratt, D. E. and Hudson, B. J. 1990. Natural antioxidants not exploited commercially. Food Antioxid., 171-191.
  16. Sánchez-Escalante, A., Torrescano, G., Djenane, D., Beltrán, J. A. and Roncalés, P. 2003. Stabilization of colour and odour of beef patties by using lycopene-rich tomato and peppers as a source of antioxidants. J. Sci. Food Agric. 83, 187-194.
  17. Seki, E., Osajima, K., Matsui, T. and Osajima, Y. 1993. Separation and purification of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibiory peptides from heated sardine meat by treatment with alkaline protease. Nippon Shokuhin Hogyo Gakkashi 40, 783-791.
  18. Jin, S. K., Kim, C. W., Song, Y. M., Jang, W. H., Kim, Y. B., Yeo, J. S., Kim, J. W. and Kang, K. H. 2001. Physicochemical characteristics of longissimus muscle between the Korean native pig and Llandrace. Kor. J. Food Sci. An. 21, 142-148.
  19. Jin, S. K., Bae, D. S., Kim, I. S., Hah, K. H., Hur, S. J., Park, K. H. and Lyou, H. J. 2005. Changes of qualities in vacuum packed fermented pork using a Korean traditional sensoning during storage. J. Ani. Sci. Technol. 47, 39-48.
  20. Kang, S. M., Kang, C. G. and Lee, S. K. 2007. Comparison of the quality characteristics of Korean native black pork and modern genotype pork during refrigerated storage after thawing. Kor. J. Food Sci. An. 27, 1-7.
  21. Kim, D. W., Gil, J. A., Kim, H. J., Kim, H. W., Park, B. Y., Lee, S. K. and Jang, A. R. 2013. Changes in meat quality and natural di-peptides in the loin and ham cuts of Korean native black pigs during cold storage. J. Life Sci. 23, 1477- 1485.
  22. Kim, G. W., Yoo, J. Y., Kim, K. J., Lee, J. W., Kim, Y. B., Min, K. H. and Kim, S. E. 2010. Analysis of carcass characteristics by gender and carcass grades of Jeju native pigs. J. Ani. Sci. Technol. 52, 313-318.
  23. Kim, I. S., Jang, A., Jin, S. K., Lee, M. and Jo, C. 2008. Effect of marination with mixed salt and kiwi juice and cooking methods on the quality of pork loin-based processed meat product. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37, 217-222.
  24. Kim, I. S., Min, J. S., Lee, S. O., Shin, D. K., Lee, J. I. and Lee, M. H. 1998. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of domestic vacuum packaged pork loins for export during chilled storage. Kor. J. Ani. Sci. 40, 401-413.
  25. Kim, S. H. and Kim, Y. M. 2007. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of Korean ginseng using an ORAC Assay. J. East Asian Soc. Dietary Life 17, 393-401.
  26. Brewer, M. S. and Harbers, C. A. Z. 1991. Effect of packaging on color and physical characteristics of ground pork in long-term frozen storage. J. Food Sci. 56, 362.
  27. Brewer, M. S., Ikins, W. G. and Harbers, C. A. Z. 1992. TBA values, sensory characteristics and volatiles in ground pork during long-term frozen storage: Effects of packaging. J. Food Sci. 57, 558-563.
  28. Gil-Agustí, M., Esteve-Romero, J. and Carda-Broch, S. 2008. Anserine and carnosine determination in meat samples by pure micellar liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 1189, 444-450.
  29. Gillespie, K. M., Chae, J. M. and Ainsworth, E. A. 2007. Rapid measurement of total antioxidant capacity in plants. Nat. Protoc. 2, 867-870.
  30. Jeong, J. W., Lee, H. J. and Park, N. H. 1999. Changes in quality during frozen storage of meat with thermal equalized freezing. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technol. 31, 688-696.

Cited by

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of dietary pork extract on proliferation and cytokine secretion using mouse primary splenocytes 2017,