Effects of Roughness and Vertical Wall Factors on Wave Overtopping in Rubble Mound Breakwaters in Busan Yacht Harbor

  • Dodaran, Asgar Ahadpour ;
  • Park, Sang Kil ;
  • Kim, Kook Hyun ;
  • Shahmirzadi, Mohammad Ebrahim Meshkati ;
  • Park, Hong Bum
  • Received : 2014.09.25
  • Accepted : 2015.01.16
  • Published : 2015.02.28


Coastlines are protected by breakwater structures against the erosion of sand or other materials along beaches due to wave action. This research examined the use of physical modeling to determine the effects of the tetrapod size and vertical walls of a rubble mound on the volume of wave overtopping under irregular wave conditions in coastal areas in Busan Yacht Harbor. In this analysis model, the structures were studied using irregular waves and the JONSWAP wave energy spectrum. To understand the effects of the tetrapod size and heights of the vertical wall, the study considered vertical walls of 0, 1.78, 6.83, and 9.33 cm with armor double layered material tetrapods of 8, 12, 16, and 20 tons. An extensive number of experiments covering a relatively large range of variables enabled a comprehensive discussion. First, in the presence of a short vertical wall, the water level played a key role in the overtopping discharge. In such circumstances, the values of the wave overtopping discharge decreased with increasing freeboard size. In the presence of a tall freeboard and middle, the value of the wave overtopping discharge was equally influenced by the vertical wall factor. Moreover, the tetrapod size decreased by an increase in the vertical wall factor, and relationship between them resulted in a short wall height. From an engineering point of view, considering a small water level may allow the choice of a shorter vertical wall, which would ultimately provide a more economical design.


Rubble Mound Breakwater;Irregular Waves Series;JONSWAP Spectrum;Roughness and Vertical Wall Factor


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