DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Single-dose Toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go Glucose 5% Intravenous Injection in a Rat Model

  • Jo, Su-jeong (Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Choi, Young-doo (Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Jung, Chan-yung (Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Kim, Kap-sung (Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Lee, Seung-deok (Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University)
  • Received : 2015.06.18
  • Accepted : 2015.07.20
  • Published : 2015.09.30

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose 5% pharmacopuncture (GWG5). Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of five males and five females per group: an intravenous (IV) injection of 1.0 mL of normal saline solution per animal was administered to the control group; IV injections of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of GWG5 per animal were administered to the experimental groups (G: 0.1, G: 0.5, and G: 1.0). Observation of clinical signs and body weight measurements were carried out for 14 days following the injections. At the end of the observation period, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological tests, as well as necropsy examinations, were performed on the injected parts. Results: No mortalities or adverse clinical signs were observed in any of the groups. The body weights of all groups continuously increased. In the hematological and the biochemical tests, females in G-0.1 had minimal changes, but those changes were not dose dependent. On necropsy examination, no abnormalities were observed. In the histopathological test, focal inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in two female rats, one in the control group and one in G-1.0. Also, one female rat in the control group had an epidermis crust. These changes were concluded to have been caused by the insertion of the needle into a vein. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that the lethal dose of GWG5 administered via IV injection is more than 1.0 mL per animal in both male and female rats. Further studies are needed to establish more detailed evidence of its toxicity.

References

  1. Ichikawa H, Wang X, Konishi T. Role of component herbs in antioxidant activity of shengmai san - a traditional Chinese medicine formula preventing cerebral oxidative damage in rat. Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(4):509-21. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X03001193
  2. Jin JP. [Manbyeonghwechun]. Seoul: Bubin publishers;2007; p. 233. Korean.
  3. Heo J. [Donguibogam]. Hadong: Donguibogam publishers Co; 2005; p. 1238-41. Korean.
  4. Hwang DY. [Bangyakhappyeon]. Seoul: Younglimsa; 2002; p. 137. Korean.
  5. Ju YS, Choi YH, Kim HK, Ko BS. [Effects of kuseonwangdogo on the proliferation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells, the anti-complementary and the cytotoxic effects]. J Korean Oriental Med. 2000;20(3):105-14. Korean.
  6. Jo SJ, Kim SC, Kim YJ, Kim EJ, Kim KS, Lee SD. Study of single-dose toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose intramuscular injection in sprague-dawley rats. J Pharmacopuncture. 2014;17(1):51-8. https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.007
  7. Kim YJ, Jo SJ, Choi YD, Kim EJ, Kim KS, Lee SD. Single-dose toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose 20% intravenous injection in sprague-dawley rats. J Pharmacopuncture. 2014;17(3):25-30. https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.023
  8. Hongnat JM, Murat I, Saint-Maurice C. Evaluation of current paediatric guidelines for fluid therapy using two different dextrose hydrating solutions. Pediatr Anesth. 1991;1(2):95-100. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9592.1991.tb00018.x
  9. Kim CM, Shin MK, Ahn DK, Lee KS. [An unabridged dictionary of chinese herbs]. Seoul: Jeongdam; 2006; p. 2611-2. Korean.
  10. Korea Food and Drug Administration. Good laboratory practice regulation for non-clinical laboratory studies (KFDA Notification No. 2012-61, 2012 Aug 24) [Internet]. Seoul: The National Legal Information Center of the Ministry of Government Legislation; 2012 [cited 2012 Oct 1]. Available from: http://www.law.go.kr/.
  11. Kim JD, Kang DI. [A descriptive statistical approach to the Korean pharmacopuncture therapy]. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2010;3(3):141-9. Korean. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2005-2901(10)60029-5
  12. Choi MS, Lee YH, Shim CK. Bioavailabilities of omeprazole administered to rats through various routes. Arch Pharm Res. 1995;18(3):141-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02979185
  13. Boxenbaum HG, Geitner KA, Jack ML, Dixon WR, Spiegel HE, Symington J, et al. Pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutic profile of chlordiazepoxide HCl in healthy subjects: single-dose studies by the intravenous, intramuscular, and oral routes. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1977;5(1):3-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01064806
  14. Lee KH, Sun SH, Yu JS, Lim CS, Kwon KR. Intravenous single-dose toxicity of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture in sprague-dawley rats. J Pharmacopuncture. 2014;17(3):50-6. https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.026
  15. Kwon KR. [A clinical study on the effects of intravenous wild ginseng herbal acupuncture on the human body]. J Pharmacopuncture. 2004;7(1):15-26. Korean. https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2004.7.1.015
  16. Jung DJ, Choi YM, Kim SH, Kim JU, Yook TH. Single intravenous-dose toxicity of water-soluble carthami-flos pharmacopuncture (WCF) in rats. J Pharmacopuncture. 2014;17(3):31-9. https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.024
  17. Song BK, Jeon YC, Kim SA, Shim AN, Seong KM, Lee EJ. [The effect of intravenous injection of the water extract of Angelica gigas nakai on gliosis in the middle cerebral artery occlusion rats]. J Pharmacopuncture. 2011;14(3):5-17. Korean. https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2011.14.3.005
  18. Kim HC, Kim GH, Lee GS, Kim HW, Lim SH, Lim CY, et al. [Effects of glycyrrhizae radix pharmacopuncture intravenous injection on ischemia-induced acute renal failure in rabbits]. J Pharmacopuncture. 2011;14(4):5-11. Korean. https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2011.14.4.005
  19. Choi MJ, Kim SC, Cho SH. Intravenous injection of saeng maek san - a safe method of treatment in rats. J Pharmacopuncture. 2014;17(2):67-72. https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.018
  20. Liang AH, Li CY, Liu T, Cao CY, Hao R, Yi Y, et al.[Animal models and methodologies for evaluation of chinese herbal injection-induced pseudoanaphylactoid reactions]. World Science and Technology. 2010;12(6):998-1004. Chinese.