Effect of Flow Stress, Friction, Temperature, and Velocity on Finite Element Predictions of Metal Flow Lines in Forgings

유동응력, 마찰, 온도, 속도 등이 단조 중 단류선의 유한요소예측에 미치는 영향

Choi, M. H.;Jin, H. T.;Joun, M. S.

  • Received : 2015.01.05
  • Accepted : 2015.06.10
  • Published : 2015.08.01


In this paper, the effect of flow stress, friction, temperature, and velocity on finite element predictions of metal flow lines after cylindrical upsetting is presented. An actual three-stage hot forging process involving an upsetting step is utilized and experimental metal flow lines are measured to study the effect of the various process variables. It was found that temperature and velocity for reasonable values of friction have little influence on metal flow lines especially those located deep within the cylinder but that flow stress has a direct influence on the flow lines. It was shown that a pure power law material model cannot reflect the real flow stress of hot material because it underestimates the flow stress especially around the dead-metal zone for the upsetting of a cylindrical specimen. It is thus recommended that a proper lower limit of flow stress be assumed to alleviate this issue.


Metal Flow Lines;Forging Simulation;Flow Stress;Upsetting Process;Lower Limit of Flow Stress


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