Reduction of eco-toxicity risk of heavy metals in the rotary drum composting of water hyacinth: Waste lime application and mechanisms

Singh, Jiwan;Kalamdhad, Ajay S.;Lee, Byeong-Kyu

  • Received : 2015.03.21
  • Accepted : 2015.06.02
  • Published : 2015.09.30


Experiments were conducted on the immobilization of eight heavy metals (HMs) (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) during 20-day rotary drum composting of water hyacinth. The Tessier sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fractionation of HMs. The eco-toxicity risk of HMs was assessed by risk assessment code (RAC). In the results, the bioavailability factor (BAF) for different HMs presented in the following order: Mn > Zn = Fe > Cu > Cr > Cd = Pb > Ni. The total concentration of Pb was higher than that of Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd and Cr; however, its BAF was the lowest among these HMs. These results confirmed that the eco-toxicity of HMs depends on bioavailable fractions rather than on the total concentration. The greatest reduction in bioavailability and eco-toxicity risk of HMs occurred in lime 1% and 2% as compared to control and lime 3%. The eco-toxicity risk of Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr was reduced from low risk to zero risk by rotary drum composting. These studies demonstrated the high efficiency of the rotary drum for degrading compost materials and for reducing the bioavailability and eco-toxicity risk of HMs during the composting process.


ANOVA;Composting;Fractionation;HMs;RAC;Waste lime


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Grant : 울산 친환경 생태산업단지 사업팀