DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Tuberculosis in Mexico and the USA, Comparison of Trends Over Time 1990-2010

  • Hernandez-Garduno, Eduardo (Unidad de Ensenanza e Investigacion, Hospital Monica Pretelini Saenz, Instituto de Salud del Estado de Mexico) ;
  • Mendoza-Damian, Fabiola (Laboratorio de Micobacterias, Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Instituto de Salud del Estado de Mexico) ;
  • Garduno-Alanis, Adriana (Unidad de Ensenanza e Investigacion, Hospital Monica Pretelini Saenz, Instituto de Salud del Estado de Mexico) ;
  • Ayon-Garibaldo, Salvador (Programa de la salud del adulto y Micobacteriosis, Region Sanitaria VIII Costa Norte, Instituto de Salud del Estado de Jalisco)
  • Received : 2014.11.06
  • Accepted : 2015.04.07
  • Published : 2015.04.30

Abstract

Background: The aim was to compare tuberculosis trends in Mexico and United States and to evaluate Mexican diagnostic methods and contact investigation. Methods: Retrospective comparative study of tuberculosis cases and incidence rates between both countries (1990-2010). Diagnostic methods and contact investigations were also evaluated for Mexico. Estimates were obtained from official websites. Results: In Mexico, no clear trend was found over time for cases. Pulmonary (PTB) and all forms of tuberculosis (AFTB) incidence decreased 2.0% annually. There was a negative correlation between the mean contacts examined per case and AFTB incidence ($r^2=-0.44$, p=0.01) with a 33% reduction in AFTB incidence. In United States, PTB and AFTB cases have been decreasing 6.0% and 5.6% annually, respectively. The incidence decreased 7.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of tuberculosis in Mexico is decreasing slightly over time at 2% annually. In the United States, cases and incidence rates have been decreasing at a higher rate (5% to 7% annually). The inverse association between number of contacts examined per state and incidence rates in Mexico underscore the importance of reinforcing and improving contact investigations with the likely translation of a decrease of TB incidence at a higher rate.

References

  1. World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2014 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 [cited 2015 Mar 1]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/137094/1/9789241564809_eng.pdf?ua=1.
  2. Styblo K. Recent advances in epidemiological research in tuberculosis. Adv Tuberc Res 1980;20:1-63.
  3. Sutherland I. Recent studies in the epidemiology of tuberculosis, based on the risk of being infected with tubercle bacilli. Adv Tuberc Res 1976;19:1-63.
  4. Chiba Y, Kurihara T. Development of pulmonary tuberculosis with special reference to the time interval after tuberculin conversion. Bull Int Union Tuberc Lung Dis 1979;54:263-4.
  5. Love J, Sonnenberg P, Glynn JR, Gibson A, Gopaul K, Fang Z, et al. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in England, 1998. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2009;13:201-7.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported tuberculosis in the United States, 2012 [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2013 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2012/table6.htm.
  7. Direccion General de Epidemiologia (Anuarios de Morbilidad) [Internet]. Alvaro Obregon: Direccion General de Epidemiologia; 2014 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://www.epidemiologia.salud.gob.mx/anuario/html/anuarios.html.
  8. Direccion General de Epidemiologia. Perfil Epidemiologico de la tuberculosis en Mexico, Julio 2012 [Internet]. Alvaro Obregon: Direccion General de Epidemiologia; 2012 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://www.epidemiologia.salud.gob.mx/doctos/infoepid/publicaciones/2012/Monografias5_Tuberculosis_Mex_junio12.pdf.
  9. NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-006-SSA2-2013, Para la prevencion y control de la tuberculosis [Internet]. Mexico City: Secretaria de Gobernacion; 2013 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5321934&fecha=13/11/2013.
  10. Contact Investigation. Washington State Department of Health DOH 343-071, June 2012 [Internet]. Washington, DC: Washiington State Department of Health; 2012 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/343-071-WATBManual-ContactInvestigation.pdf.
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported cases of tuberculosis in the United States, 2010 [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2010/table1.htm.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported cases of tuberculosis in the United States, 2010 [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2010/table9.htm.
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported tuberculosis in the United States, 2010 [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsTB2010Data/index.html.
  14. Los Objetivos del Desarrollo del Milenio en Mexico [Internet]. Mexico City: Presidencia de la Republica; 2012 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://200.23.8.225/odm/doctos/Inf-Mex2013.pdf.
  15. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). A strategic plan for the elimination of tuberculosis in the United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1989;38:269-72.
  16. Modificacion a la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-006-SSA2-1993, Para la prevencion y control de la tuberculosis en la atencion primaria a la salud [Internet]. Mexico City: Secreteria de Salud; 2005 [cited 2014 Jul 1]. Available from: http://www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cdi/nom/m006ssa293.pdf.
  17. Aliyu G, El-Kamary SS, Abimiku A, Brown C, Tracy K, Hungerford L, et al. Prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections among tuberculosis suspects in Nigeria. PLoS One 2013;8:e63170. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063170
  18. Shahraki AH, Heidarieh P, Bostanabad SZ, Khosravi AD, Hashemzadeh M, Khandan S, et al. “Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis” may be nontuberculous mycobacteria. Eur J Intern Med 2015;26:279-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2015.03.001
  19. Alvarado-Esquivel C, Garcia-Corral N, Carrero-Dominguez D, Enciso-Moreno JA, Gurrola-Morales T, Portillo-Gomez L, et al. Molecular analysis of Mycobacterium isolates from extrapulmonary specimens obtained from patients in Mexico. BMC Clin Pathol 2009;9:1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6890-9-1
  20. Cain KP, Garman KN, Laserson KF, Ferrousier-Davis OP, Miranda AG, Wells CD, et al. Moving toward tuberculosis elimination: implementation of statewide targeted tuberculin testing in Tennessee. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012;186:273-9. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201111-2076OC
  21. Reves RR, Nolan CM. Tuberculosis elimination in the United States: an achievable goal or an illusion? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012;186:i-iii. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201206-1039ED
  22. Macaraig M, Burzynski J, Varma JK. Tuberculosis control in New York City: a changing landscape. N Engl J Med 2014;370:2362-5. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1402147