The Relationship between Motor Proficiency and Executive Function in Preschoolers

유아의 운동 능력과 실행 기능의 관계

  • 이윤아 (인하대학교대학원 아동복지학전공) ;
  • 이완정 (인하대학교 아동학과)
  • Received : 2015.06.15
  • Accepted : 2015.10.17
  • Published : 2015.10.31


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between preschoolers' motor proficiency and their executive function. Participants were 72 children who participated in individual tests. Motor proficiency was measured by a shortened form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Second Edition(BOT-2). Executive functions were assessed by utilizing the revised version of the four tasks: 'Day-Night Task', 'Dimensional Change Card Sort Task', 'Lift Flag Task' and 'Digit Span Task'. The major findings were as follows. First, the 5-year-olds motor proficiency was found to be better than the 4-year-olds. Second, the 5-year-olds executive function was found to be better than the 4-yeat-olds. Last, the 4-year-olds' and 5-year-olds' motor proficiency was related to their executive function. Concretely, fine manual control of motor proficiency was executive function and there was a high correlation. And behavior response inhibition and working memory of executive function was motor proficiency and there was a high correlation. Data analysis showed that preschoolers' motor proficiency and their executive function were different by their age level and that preschoolers' motor proficiency was correlated with their executive function.


  1. Piek, J. P., Dyck, M. J., Nieman, A., Anderson, M., Hay, D., & Smith, L. M. et al. (2004). The relationship between motor coordination, executive functioning and attention in school aged children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19(8), 1063-1076.
  2. Williams, M. D., Saunders, J. E., Maschette, W. E., & Wilson, C. J. (2013). Outcome and process in motor performance: A comparison of jumping by typically developing children and those with low motor proficiency. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 17(2), 135-149.
  3. Zelazo, P. D. (2006). The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS): A method of assessing executive function in children. Nature Protocols, 1(1), 297-301.
  4. 김충일, 이강이 (2013). 유아기 이동운동기술과 체력의 발달적 경향성과 관계: 만 2, 3, 4, 5세를 대상으로. 한국체육학회지, 52(2), 613-625.
  5. 김태주, 신나리 (2013). 통합적 신체표현활동이 유아의 창의성에 미치는 영향. 한국보육지원학회지, 9(6), 289-307.
  6. 김홍근, 박태진 (2003). 숫자 바로 따라 외우기와 거꾸로 따라 외우기의 차이에 관한 규준 연구. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 22(3), 599-613.
  7. 도례미, 조수철, 김붕년, 김재원, 신민섭 (2010). 아동기 실행기능의 발달. 한국심리치료학회지, 2(2), 1-12.
  8. 곽금주, 박혜원, 김청택 (2002). 한국 웩슬러 아동지능검사(K-WISC-III) 지침서. 서울: 특수교육.
  9. 김선진, 정연정, 류제광 (2013). 체육 영재 프로그램 참여자의 운동 능력과 인지기능의 상관관계에 관한 연구. 한국초등체육학회지, 19(2), 41-52.
  10. 박대근 (2005). 유아기 대.소근육 운동발달의 과정적 특성. 중앙대학교 대학원 박사학위논문.
  11. 오연주, 정민자 (2003). 4, 5세 유아의 개인특성 변인이 운동능력에 미치는 영향. 한국영유아보육학, 33, 185-208.
  12. 이영자, 이종숙, 신은수 (2005). 유아의 정서지능, 마음이론, 실행기능 향상을 위한 그림책 이야기를 활용한 집단게임놀이 효과. 유아교육연구, 25(3), 119-147.
  13. 임옥재 (1990). 유아기에 나타나는 동작을 통한 운동기능의 발달과 기본적인 유형. 건국대학교자연과학연구소 논문집, 1, 73-88.
  14. 정옥분(2005). 아동발달의 이해. 서울: 학지사.
  15. Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71-82.
  16. Anderson, P. J., & Reidy, N. (2012). Assessing executive function in preschoolers. Neuropsychol Rev, 22(4), 345-360.
  17. Barenberg, J., Berse, T., & Dutke, S. (2011). Executive functions in learning processes: Do they benefit from physical activity. Educational Research Review, 6(3), 208-222.
  18. Barnett, L. M., Beurden, E. V., Morgan, P. J., Brooks, L. O., & Beard, J. R. (2009). Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(3), 252-259.
  19. Best, J. R. (2010). Effects of physical activity on children's executive function: Contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Developmental Review, 30(4), 331-351.
  20. Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641-1660.
  21. Bruininks, R. H., & Bruininks, B. D. (2005). Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency(2nd ed.). SA: Pearson.
  22. Cameron, C. E., Brock, L. L., Murrah, W. M., Bell, L. H., Worzalla, S. L., & Grissmer, D. et al. (2012). Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement. Child Development, 83(4), 1229-1244.
  23. Carlson, S. M. (2005). Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 595-616.
  24. Deitz, J. C., Kartin, D., & Kopp, K. (2007). Review of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition(BOT-2). Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 27(4), 87-102.
  25. Donders, J. (2002). The behavior rating inventory of executive function: Introduction. Child Neuropsychology, 8(4), 229-230.
  26. Ellemberg, D., & St-Louis-Deschenes, M. (2010). The effect of acute physical exercise on cognitive function during development. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(2), 122-126.
  27. Etnier, J. L., & Chang, Y. K. (2009). The effect of physical activity on executive function: A brief commentary on definitions, measurement issues, and the current state of the literature. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31(4), 469-483.
  28. Gerstadt, C. L., Hong, Y. J., & Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2- 7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test. Cognition, 53(2), 129-153.
  29. Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., & Guy, S. C. (2001). Assessment of executive functions in children with neurological impairment. In R. Simonsson & S. Reswnthal(Eds.), Psychological and developmental assessment. NY: The Guilford Press.
  30. Hofsten, C. V. (2004). An action perspective on motor development. Trends in Cognitive Scienced, 6(8), 266-272.
  31. Hughes, C. (1998). Executive function in preschoolers: Links with theory of mind and verbal ability. British Journal of Development Psychology, 16(2), 223-253.
  32. Isquith, P. K., Crawford, J. S., Espy, K. A., & Gioia, G. A. (2005). Assessment of executive function in preschool-aged children. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11(3), 209-215.
  33. Kambas, A., Michalopoulou, M., Fatouros, I. G., Christoforidis, C., Manthou, E., & Giannakidou, D. et al. (2012). The relationship between motor proficiency and pedometer-determined physical activity in young children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 24(1), 34-44.
  34. Kloo, D., Perner, J., Aichhorn, M., & Schmidhuber, N. (2010). Perspective taking and cognitive flexibility in the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task. Cognitive Development, 25(3), 208-217.
  35. Kochanska, G., Murray, K., Jacques, T. Y., Koenig, A. L., & Vandegeest, K. A. (1996). Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67(2), 490-507.
  36. Lam, H . M. Y . (201 1. )A ssessment of p reschoolers' g ross m otor p roficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency. Early Child Development and Care, 181(2), 189-201.
  37. Lopes, V. P., Rodrigues, L. P., Maia, J. A. R., & Malina, R. M. (2011). Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in sports, 21(5), 663-669.
  38. Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe”Tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49-100.
  39. Mulder, H., & Cragg, L. (2014). Executive functions and academic achievement: Current research and future directions. Infant and Child Development, 23(1), 1-3.

Cited by

  1. Current Research Trends on Executive Function in Children vol.38, pp.2, 2017,