Determinants and Performance of Port Logistics Service Quality

항만물류서비스품질의 결정요인과 성과분석

  • 박정희 (중앙대학교 무역물류학과) ;
  • 우수한 (중앙대학교 국제물류학과)
  • Received : 2015.07.29
  • Accepted : 2015.09.21
  • Published : 2015.09.30


This paper investigates the determinants of port service quality from a resources-based approach. The research model is derived from the relevant literature in port management, service quality, and resource-based theory. It is hypothesized that tangible and intangible resources contribute to port service quality, which in turn leads to the enhancement of reputation and loyalty to ports. To test this, a questionnaire survey is undertaken on three major ports in Korea: Busan, Incheon, and Gwangyang; the collected data are then analyzed using partial least squares. It is suggested that both tangible resources and intangible resources have a positive influence on general service quality and that general service quality has a positive influence on customer satisfaction, thus improving port reputation and loyalty. The contribution to the literature is that resource-based theory is applied to a port service quality model and the model is verified. In addition, an augmented model is adopted to examine the effect of individual resources on service quality. It is also possible for port managers to use the constructs to monitor their resources and develop more specific strategies to gain reputation and loyalty from customers.


  1. 강덕출.전외술(2012), "부산항 신항의 항만서비스품질.만족.신뢰 및 충성도 간의 구조적 관계: 전환장 벽의 조절효과를 중심으로", 한국항만경제학회지, 제28권 제1호, 203-227.
  2. 김병일(2006), "항만물류 서비스품질 차원이 고객만족도에 미치는 영향-인천항 컨테이너 터미널을 중심으로-", 한국항만경제학회지, 제22권 제1호, 125-149.
  3. 김병일.유홍성(2007), "환황해권 항만의 서비스 품질 각 차원이 고객만족에 미치는 상대적 영향에 관한 연구", 한국항만경제학회지, 제23권 제4호, 1-22.
  4. 김성엽.주혜영(2008), "항만물류 서비스품질, 항만평판과 선사의 항만 고객충성도의 구조적 관계", 무역학회지, 제33권 제3호, 1-30.
  5. 김정수(2000), "부산항의 항만경쟁력 비교분석", 한국항만경제학회지, 제16권, 251-280.
  6. 서수완.방희석(2002), "물류서비스품질 지각이 재구매의도에 미치는 영향 분석: 컨테이너항만 이용자를 중심으로", 무역학회지, 제27권 제3호, 175-210.
  7. 송채헌.송선옥(2004), "항만물류서비스의 품질과 고객만족에 관한 연구-부산.광양항의 해운선사를 중심으로-", 통상정보연구, 제6권 제2호, 361-384.
  8. 안광호.김민성.김병일(2008), "컨테이너항만 서비스품질 차원이 고객만족과 재이용 및 구전의도에 미치는 효과에 관한 연구: 선사의 규모와 컨테이너항만 입지의 조절효과", 경영학연구, 제37권 제3호, 417-442.
  9. 이정호.최병대(2013), "항만의 공공서비스품질이 고객만족에 미치는 효과분석: 평택항을 중심으로", 한국행정논집, 제25권 제3호, 933-955.
  10. 임일규.김명재.안기명(2010), "중국항만과 경쟁력분석을 통한 부산항 환적화물 유치전략 연구", 한국항만 경제학회지, 제26권 제3호, 175-197.
  11. 정우천.하명신.배상욱(2011), "항만물류 서비스품질과 관계품질이 관계지속의도에 미치는 영향", 국제상학, 제26권 제1호, 91-115.
  12. 최영로(2010), "정기선사에 대한 지각된 서비스품질, 고객 만족 및 관계질간의 구조적 관계에 관한 실증연 구", 한국항만경제학회지, 제26권 제4호, 147-167.
  13. 최홍엽.하명신.최성광(2008), "항만물류서비스 품질이 고객만족 및 고객충성도에 미치는 영향-부산항을 중심으로", 국제상학, 제23권 제2호, 107-128.
  14. 황재원.박경미(2014), "경영자원의 속성이 자원공유에 미치는 영향: 자원기반관점을 중심으로", 한국산학기술학회논문지, 제15권 제10호, 6004-6013.
  15. Amit, R. and P. J. H. Schoemaker(1993), "Strategic Assets and Organizational Rent," Strategic Management Journal, Vol.14 No.1, 33-46.
  16. Anderson, E. W. and M. W. Sullivan(1993), "The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction for Firms," Marketing Science, Vol. 12 No.2, 125-143.
  17. Barney, J. B.(1991), "Firm Resource and Sustained Competitive Advantage," Journal of Management, Vol.17 No.1, 99-120.
  18. Bearden, W. O. and J. E. Teel(1983), "Selected Determinants of Consumer Satisfaction and Complaint Reports," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.20 No.1, 21-28.
  19. Berry, L. L., A. Parasuraman and V. A. Zeithaml(1988), "The Service-Quality Puzzle," Business Horizons, Vol.31 No.5, 35-43.
  20. Bitner, M. J.(1990), "Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses," Journal of Marketing, Vol.54 No.2, 69-82.
  21. Bitner, M. J.(1992), "Servicescapes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees," Journal of Marketing, Vol.56, 57-71.
  22. Bollen, K. A.(1989), Structural Equations with Latent Variables, Wiley-Interscience.
  23. Bollen, K. A. and R. Lennox(1991), "Conventional Wisdom on Measurement: A Structural Equation Perspective," Psychological Bulletin, Vol.110 No.2, 305-314.
  24. Bontis, N., N. C. Dragonetti, K. Jacobsen and G. Roos (1999), "The Knowledge Toolbox: A Review of the Tools Available To Measure and Manage Intangible Resources," European Management Journal, Vol.17 No.4, 1-20.
  25. Boulding, W., A. Kalra, R. Staelin and V. A. Zeithaml(1993), "A Dynamic Process Model of Service Quality: From Expectation to Behavioral Intentions," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 30 No.1, 7-27.
  26. Bowen, J. T. and S.‐L. Chen(2001), "The Relationship between Customer Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction," International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.13 No.5, 213-217.
  27. Brady, M. K. and J. J. Cronin Jr.(2001), "Some New Thoughts on Conceptualizing Perceived Service Quality: A Hierarchical Approach," The Journal of Marketing, Vol.65 No.3, 34-49.
  28. Brady, M. K. and C. J. Robertson(2001), "Searching for a Consensus on the Antecedent Role of Service Quality and Satisfaction: An Exploratory Cross-national Study," Journal of Business Research, Vol.51 No.1, 53-60.
  29. Carman, J. M.(1990), "Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality: An assessment of the SERVQUAL Dimensions," Journal of Retailing, Vol.66 No.1, 33-55.
  30. Carmeli, A.(2001), "High- and Low-Performance Firms: Do They have Different Profiles of Perceived Core Intangible Resources and Business Environment?," Technovation, Vol.21, 661-671.
  31. Carmeli, A.(2004), "Assessing Core Intangible Resources," European Management Journal, Vol.22 No.1, 110-122.
  32. Caruana, A.(2002), "Service Loyalty: The Effects of Service Quality and the Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction," European Journal of Marketing, Vol.36 No.7/8, 811-828.
  33. Cater, T. and B. Cater(2009), "(In)tangible Resources as Antecedents of a Company's Competitive Advantage and Performance," Journal for East European Management Studies, Vol.14 No.2, 186-209.
  34. Chase, R. B.(1981), "The Customer Contact Approach to Services: Theoretical Bases and Practical Extensions," Operations Research, Vol.29 No.4, 698-706.
  35. Chaudhuri, A. and M. B. Holbrook(2001), "The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty," Journal of Marketing, Vol.65 No.2, 81-93.
  36. Chirico, F. and M. Nordqvist(2010), "Dynamic Capabilities and Trans-generational Value Creation in Family Firms: The Role of Organizational Culture," International Small Business Journal, Vol.28 No.5, 487-504.
  37. Coff, R. W.(1999), "When Competitive Advantage Doesn't Lead to Performance: The Resource- Based View and Stakeholder Bargaining Power," Organization science, Vol.10 No.2, 119-133.
  38. Cronin, Jr., J. J. and S. A. Taylor(1992), "Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension," Journal of Marketing, Vol.56 No.3, 55-68.
  39. Crosby, P. B.(1980), Quality is Free, Signet Book.
  40. Dabholkar, P. A., C. D. Shepherd and D. I. Thorpe (2000), "A Comprehensive Framework for Service Quality: An Investigation of Critical Conceptual and Measurement Issues through a Longitudinal Study," Journal of Retailing, Vol.76 No.2, 139-173.
  41. Davis, D. F. and J. T. Mentzer(2008), "Relational Resources in Interorganizational Exchange: The Effects of Trade Equity and Brand Equity," Journal of Retailing, Vol.84 No.4, 435-448.
  42. Diamantopoulos, A.(2006), "The Error Term in Formative Measurement Models: Interpretation and Modeling Implications," Journal of Modelling in Management, Vol.1 No.1, 7-17.
  43. Diamantopoulos, A. and J. A. Siguaw(2006), "Formative Versus Reflective Indicators in Organizational Measure Development: A Comparison and Empirical Illustration," British Journal of Management, Vol.17 No.4, 263-282.
  44. Dierickx, I. and K. Cool(1989), "Asset Stock Accumulation and Sustainability of Competitive Advantage," Management Science, Vol.35 No.12, 1504-1511.
  45. Edvinsson, L. and M. S. Malone(1997), Intellectual Capital: The Proven Way to Establish Your Company's Real Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower, Piatkus.
  46. Eisenhardt, K. M. and J. A. Martin(2000), "Dynamic Capabilities: What are they?," Strategic Management Journal, Vol.21, 1105-1121.<1105::AID-SMJ133>3.0.CO;2-E
  47. Fernandez, E., J. M. Montes and C. J. Vazquez(2000), "Typology and Strategic Analysis of Intangible Resources: A Resource-Based Approach," Technovation, Vol.20, 81-92.
  48. Fombrun, C. J. and P. Matthew(2006), "Corporate Reputations in China: How Do Consumers Feel About Companies?," Corporate Reputation Review, Vol.9 No.3, 157-170.
  49. Fornell, C.(1992), "A Nnational Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience," Journal of Marketing, Vol.56 No.1, 6-21.
  50. Fornell, C. and D. F. Larcker(1981), "Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.18 No.1, 39-50.
  51. Galbreath, J.(2005), "Which Resources Matter the Most to Firm Success? An Exploratory Study of Resource-Based Theory," Technovation, Vol.25 No.9, 979-987.
  52. Galbreath, J. and P. Galvin(2006), "Accounting for Performance Variation: How Important Are Intangible Resources?," GSB Working Paper No.60, 1-34.
  53. Geisser, S.(1974), "A Predictive Approach to the Random Effect Model," Biometrika, Vol.61 No.1, 101-107.
  54. Genestre, A. and P. Herbig(1996), "Service Expectations and Perceptions Revisited: Adding Product Quality to Servqual," Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol.4 No.4, 72-82
  55. Grant, R. M.(1991), "The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation," California Management Review, Vol.33 No.3, 114-135.
  56. Griffith, D. A., M. B. Myers and M. G. Harvey(2006), "An Investigation of National Culture's Influence on Relationship and Knowledge Resources in Interorganizational Relationships between Japan and the United States," Journal of International Marketing, Vol.14 No.3, 1-32.
  57. Gronroos, C.(1984), "A Service Quality Model and It's Marketing Implication," European Journal of Marketing, Vol.18 No.4, 36-44.
  58. Hair, J. F., W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, R. E. Anderson and R. L. Tatham(2014), Multivariate Data Analysis(7th Ed.), Pearson Penguin Longman.
  59. Hair, J. F., C. M. Ringle and M. Sarstedt(2011), "PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet," Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol.19 No.2, 139-151.
  60. Hair. Jr., J. F., G. T M. Hult, C. M. Ringle and M. Sarstedt(2013), A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling(PLS-SEM), Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  61. Hall, R.(1992), "The Strategic Analysis of Intangible Resources," Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 13 No.2, 135-144.
  62. Hall, R.(1993), "A Framework Linking Intangible Resources and Capabilities to Sustainable Competitive Advantage," Strategic Management Journal, Vol.14 No.8, 607-618.
  63. Henseler, J., C. M. Ringle and R. R. Sinkovics(2009), The Use of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling in International Marketing, In: Sinkovics, R. R. and P. N. Ghauri(Ed.) New Challenges to International Marketing, Advances in International Marketing, 20, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 277-319.
  64. Hitt, M. A., L. Biermant, K. Shimizu and R. Kochhar(2001), "Direct and Moderating Effects of Human Capital on Strategy and Performance in Professional Service Firms: A Resource-Based Perspective," Academy of Management Journal, Vol.44 No.1, 13-28.
  65. Jarvis, C. B., S. B. MacKenzie and P. M. Podsakoff( 2003), "A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.31 No.2, 199-218.
  66. Johnston, R.(1995), "The Determinants of Service Quality: Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers," International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol.6 No.5, 53-71.
  67. Kang, G.‐D., J. Jame and K. Alexandris(2002), "Measurement of Internal Service Quality: Application of the SERVQUAL Battery to Internal Service Quality," Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol.12 No.5, 278-291.
  68. Kang, G. D. and J. James(2004), "Service Quality Dimensions: An Examination of Grönroos's Service Quality Model," Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol.14 No.4, 266-277.
  69. Keller, K. L.(2001), "Building Customer-Based Brand Equity," Marketing Management, Vol.10 No.2, 14-19.
  70. LaBarbera, P. A. and D. Mazursky(1983), "A Longitudinal Assessment of Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction: The Dynamic Aspect of the Cognitive Process," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.20 No.4, 393-404.
  71. Lee, E. S. and D. W. Song(2010), "Knowledge Management for Maritime Logistics Value: Discussing Conceptual Issues," Maritime Policy & Management: The Flagship Journal of International Shipping and Port Research, Vol.37 No.6, 563-583.
  72. Lehtinen, J.(1983), Customer-Oriented Service Firm, Espoo, Finland: Weilin-Goos.
  73. Lehtinen, U. and J. R. Lehtinen(1991), "Two Approaches to Service Quality Dimensions," The Service Industries Journal, Vol.11 No.3, 287-303.
  74. Lopez, R. C. and N. Poole(1998), "Quality Assurance in the Maritime Port Logistics Chain: The Case of Valencia, Spain," Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol.3 No.1, 33-44.
  75. Mangan, J., C. Lalwani and B. Fynes(2008), "Port‐ Centric Logistics," The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol.19 No.1, 29-41.
  76. Michalisin, M. D., R. D. Smith and D. M. Kline(1997), "In Search of Strategic Assets," The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol.5 No.4, 360-387.
  77. Notteboom, T. E. and W. Winkelmans(2001), "Structural Changes in Logistics: How will Port Authorities face the Challenge?," Maritime Policy and Management: The Flagship Journal of International Shipping and Port Research, Vol.28 No.1, 71-89.
  78. Nunnally, J. C. and I. H. Bernstein(1994), Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill, INC.
  79. OECD(2011), Competition in Ports and Port Services.
  80. Oliver, R. L.(1980), "A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.17 No.4, 460-469.
  81. Pantouvakis, A.(2006), "Port-Service Quality Dimensions and Passenger Profiles: An Exploratory Examination and Analysis," Maritime Economics & Logistics, Vol.8, 402-418.
  82. Parasuraman, A., V. A. Zeithaml and L. L. Berry(1988), "SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality," Journal of Retailing, Vol.64 No.1, 12-40.
  83. Penrose. E. T.(1959), The Theory of the Growth of the Firm(4th Ed.), Oxford University Press.
  84. Peters, H. J.(1990), "Structural Changes in International Trade and Transport Markets: The Importance of Markets," The 2nd KMI Internarional Symposium, Seoul, 58-75.
  85. Petter, S., D. Straub and A. Rai(2007), "Specifying Formative Constructs in Information Systems Research," MIS Quarterly, Vol.31 No.4, 623-656.
  86. Piercy, N. F., A. Kaleka and C. S. Katsikeas(1998), "Sources of Competitive Advantage in High Performing Exporting Companies," Journal of World Business, Vol.33 No.4, 378-393.
  87. Ponzi, L. J., C. J. Fombrun and N. A. Gardberg(2001), "RepTrakTM Pulse: Conceptualizing and Validating a Short-Form Measure of Corporate Reputation," Corporate Reputation Review, Vol.14, 15-35.
  88. Ports Regulator of South Africa(2014), Benchingmarking South African Port: Container and Automotive Terminals.
  89. Ravald, A. and C. Grönroos(1996), "The Value Concept and Relationship Marketing," European Journal of Marketing, Vol.30 No.2, 19-30.
  90. Ray, G., J. B. Barney and W. A. Muhanna(2004), "Capabilities, Business Processes, and Competitive Advantage: Choosing the Dependent Variable in Empirical Tests of the Resource-Based View," Strategic Management Journal, Vol.25 No.1, pp.23-37.
  91. Reimer, A. and R. Kuehn(2005), "The Impact of Servicescape on Quality Perception," European Journal of Marketing, Vol.39 No.7/8, 785-808.
  92. Rust, R. T. and R. L. Oliver(1994), Service Quality: Insights and Managerial Implications from the Frontier, In: Rust, R. T. and R. L. Oliver(Ed.), Service Quality: New Directions in Theory and Practice, Sage Publications, 1-19.
  93. Selnes, F.(1993), "An Examination of the Effect of Product Performance on Brand Reputation, Satisfaction and Loyalty," Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol.2 No.4, 45-60.
  94. Shostack, G. L.(1977), "Breaking Free from Product Marketing," Journal of Marketing, Vol.41 No.2, 73-80.
  95. Sirmon, D. G. and M. A. Hitt(2003), "Managing Resources: Linking Unique Resources, Management, and Wealth Creation in Family Firms," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol.27 No.4, 339-358.
  96. Slack, B.(1985), "Containerization, Inter-Port Competition, and Port Selection," Maritime Policy & Management: The Flagship Journal of International Shipping and Port Research, Vol.12 No.(4), 293-303.
  97. Stone, M.(1974), "Cross-Validatory Choice and Assessment of Statistical Predictions," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B(Methodological), Vol.36 No.2, 111-147.
  98. Sureshchandar, G. S., C. Rajendran and R. N. Anantharaman( 2002), "Determinants of Customer‐ Perceived Service Quality: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach," Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.16 No.1, 9-34.
  99. Sureshchandar, G. S., C. Rajendran and T. J. Kamalanabhan(2001), "Customer Perceptions of Service Quality: A Critique," Total Quality Management, Vol.12 No.1, 111-124.
  100. Teas, R. K.(1993), "Expectations, Performance Evaluation, and Consumers' Perceptions of Quality," Journal of Marketing, Vol.57 No.4, 18-34.
  101. Teece, D. J.(2007), "Explicating Dynamic Capabilities: The Nature and Microfoundations of (Sustainable) Enterprise Performance," Strategic Management Journal, Vol.28, 1319-1350.
  102. Teece, D. J., G. Pisano and A. Shuen(1997), "Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management," Strategic Management Journal, Vol.18 No.7, 509-533.<509::AID-SMJ882>3.0.CO;2-Z
  103. Tongzon, J. L. and W. Heng(2005), "Port Privatization, Efficiency and Competitiveness: Some Empirical Evidence from Container Ports(Terminals)," Transportation Research Part A, Vol.39, 405-424.
  104. Tse, D. K. and P. C. Wilton(1988), "Models of Consumer Satisfaction Formation: An Extension," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.25 No.2, 204-212.
  105. Ugboma, C., C. Ibe and I. C. Ogwude(2004), "Service Quality Measurements in Ports of a Developing Economy: Nigerian Ports Survey," Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 14 No.6, 487-495.
  106. Wakefield, K. L. and J. G. Blodgett(1996), "The Effect of the Servicescape on Customers' Behavioral Intentions in Leisure Service Settings," Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.10 No.6, 45-61.
  107. Wernerfelt, B.(1984), "Resource-Based View of the Firm," Strategic Management Journal, Vol.5 No.2, 171-180.
  108. Woo, S. H., Pettit, S. J., Kwak, D. W., and Beresford, A. K.(2011). "Seaport research: A structured literature review on methodological issues since the 1980s," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol.45 No.7, 667-685.
  109. Yeo, G. T. and D. W. Song(2003), "An Evaluation of Container Ports in China and Korea with the Analytic Hierarchy Process," Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.5, 726-741.
  110. Yeo, G. T., M. Roe and J. Dinwoodie(2008), "Evaluating The Competitiveness of Container Ports In Korea and China," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol.42 No.6, 910-921.