Shape Optimization of Three-Way Reversing Valve for Cavitation Reduction

3 방향 절환밸브의 공동현상 저감을 위한 형상최적화

  • Received : 2015.03.30
  • Accepted : 2015.08.09
  • Published : 2015.11.01


A pair of two-way valves typically is used in automotive washing machines, where the water flow direction is frequently reversed and highly pressurized clean water is sprayed to remove the oil and dirt remaining on machined engine and transmission blocks. Although this valve system has been widely used because of its competitive price, its application is sometimes restricted by surging effects, such as pressure ripples occurring in rapid changes in water flow caused by inaccurate valve control. As an alternative, one three-way reversing valve can replace the valve system because it provides rapid and accurate changes to the water flow direction without any precise control device. However, a cavitation effect occurs because of the complicated bottom plug shape of the valve. In this study, the cavitation index and percent of cavitation (POC) were introduced to numerically evaluate fluid flows via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. To reduce the cavitation effect generated by the bottom plug, the optimal shape design was carried out through a parametric study, in which a simple computer-aided engineering (CAE) model was applied to avoid time-consuming CFD analysis and difficulties in achieving convergence. The optimal shape design process using full factorial design of experiments (DOEs) and an artificial neural network meta-model yielded the optimal waist and tail length of the bottom plug with a POC value of less than 30%, which meets the requirement of no cavitation occurrence. The optimal waist length, tail length and POC value were found to 6.42 mm, 6.96 mm and 27%, respectively.


Supported by : 산업통상자원부


  1. Proceco Ltd., Industrial parts washer, -Engine-Components.php.
  2. Brian, N., 2007, Handbook of Valves and Actuators, Roles & Associates Ltd, UK, pp. 82-93.
  3. Franc, J. P. and Michel, J. M., 2003, Fundamentals of Cavitation, Grenoble Sciences, France, pp. 20-82.
  4. ISA-RP75.23, 1995, "Considerations for Evaluating Control Valve Cavitation," the Instrument Society of America.
  5. Lee, J. H., Baek, S. H., Park, J. H., Park, S. I. and Park, Y. C., 2013, "Experimental and Numerical Investigation for Reducing Cavitation of Butterfly Valve with Perforated pate," Trans. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng. B, Vol. 37, No. 9, pp. 176-177.
  6. Jo, S. H., Kim, H. J. and Song, K. W., 2014, "A Numerical Study for Reducing Cavitation in a Butterfly Valve with a Perforated Plate," The KSFM Journal of Fluid Machinery, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp.65-70.
  7. Kubo, M., Araki, T. and Kimura, S., 2003, "Internal flow analysis of nozzles for DI diesel engines using a cavitation model," JSAE Review 24, pp.255-261.
  8. Kim, D. K. and Sohn, C. H., 2013, "Numerical Study on Cavitation Reduction in Velocity-Control Trim of Valve with High Pressure Drop," Trans. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng. B, Vol. 37, No. 9, pp. 863-871.
  9. ANSYS Inc.,
  10. Park, K. H. and Kim, J. G., 2008, "Assessment of Turbulence Models for Engine Intake and Compression Flow Analysis," Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 1129-1140.
  11. Kim, M. J., Jin, H. B., Son, C. H. and Chung, W. J., 2013, "Numerical Analysis on Cavitation of Centrifugal Pump," KSFM Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 27-34.
  12. Owen, A., 1992, "Orthogonal Arrays for Computer Experiments, Integration and Visualization," Statistica Sinica, Vol. 2, pp. 439-452.
  13. SAS Institute Inc., 2010, JMP ver.10,

Cited by

  1. Cavitation Visualization Test for Shape Optimization of Bottom Plug in Reversing Valve vol.40, pp.11, 2016,