DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparisons of Urinary Arsenic Analysis by Pre-reductant for Preconditioning via the FI-HG-AAS Method

FI-HG-AAS를 이용한 전처리 과정에서 사용되는 예비환원제의 종류에 따른 요중 비소 분석결과 비교

Choi, Seung-Hyun;Choi, Jae Wook;Cho, YongMin;Bae, Munjoo
최승현;최재욱;조용민;배문주

  • Received : 2015.07.06
  • Accepted : 2015.10.13
  • Published : 2015.10.28

Abstract

Objectives: The method of analyzing urinary arsenic by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) is generally used because it shows relatively greater sensitivity, low detection limits, low blocking action, and is simple to operate. In this study, the results of analysis according to three pre-reductants commonly used in the FI-HG-AAS method were compared with each other. Methods: To analyze urinary arsenic, nineteen urine samples were collected from adults aged 43-79 years old without occupational arsenic exposure. Analysis equipment was FI-HG-AAS (AAnalyst 800/FIAS 400, Perkin- Elmer Inc., USA). The three pre-reductants were potassium iodide (KI/AA), C3H7NO2S (L-cysteine), and a mixture of KI/AA and L-cysteine (KI/AA&L-cysteine). Results: In the results of the analysis, the recovery rate of the method using KI/AA was 82.3%, 95.7% for Lcysteine, and 123.5% for KI/AA and L-cysteine combined. When compared with the results by use of high performance liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), the method using L-cysteine was the closest to those using HPLC-ICP-MS ($98.57{\mu}g/L$ for HPLC-ICP-MS; $74.96{\mu}g/L$ for L-cysteine; $69.23{\mu}g/L$ for KI/AA and L-cysteine; $13.06{\mu}g/L$ for KI/AA) and were significantly correlated (R2=0.882). In addition, they showed the lowest coefficient of variation in the results between two laboratories that applied the same method. Conclusion: The efficiency of hydride generation is considered highly important to the analysis of urinary arsenic via FI-HG-AAS. This study suggests that using L-cysteine as a pre-reductant may be suitable and the most rational among the FI-Hg-AAS methods using pre-reductants.

Keywords

Hydride Generation atomic absorption spectrometry;KI/ascorbic acid;L-cysteine;Pre-reductant;Urinary arsenic

References

  1. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Arsenic, metals, fibres, and dusts. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer 100.Pt C 2012: 11.
  2. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Some drinking water disinfectants and contaminants, including arsenic. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer vol. 84 2004.
  3. Gehle K, Harkins D, Johnson D, Rosales-Guevara L. Case studies in environmental medicine: arsenic toxicity. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 2000: 1-42.
  4. Tam GK, Charbonneau SM, Bryce F, Pomroy C, Sandi E. Metabolism of inorganic arsenic (74As) in humans following oral ingestion. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1979; 50(2): 319-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(79)90157-1
  5. Vahter M, Marafante E. Intracellular interaction and metabolic fate of arsenite and arsenate in mice and rabbits. Chem Biol Interact 1983; 47(1): 29-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2797(83)90145-X
  6. Hughes MF. Biomarkers of exposure: a case study with inorganic arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114(11): 1790-1796.
  7. Brima EI, Haris PI, Jenkins RO, Polya DA, Gault AG, Harrington CF. Understanding arsenic metabolism through a comparative study of arsenic levels in the urine, hair and fingernails of healthy volunteers from three unexposed ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006; 216(1): 122-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2006.04.004
  8. Marchiset-Ferlay N, Savanovitch C, Sauvant-Rochat MP. What is the best biomarker to assess arsenic exposure via drinking water? Environ Int 2012; 39(1): 150-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.015
  9. ATSDR. Toxicological profile for arsenic. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Division of Toxicology, Atlanta, GA, USA: 2007.
  10. Norin H, Vahter M. A rapid method for the selective analysis of total urinary metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Scand J Work Environ Health 1981; 7(1): 38-44. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.2568
  11. Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environmental Agency. Substance Monograph: Arsenic - Reference Value in Urine. Bundesgesundheitsbl - Gesundheitsforsch - Gesundheitsschutz 2003. 46, 12, 1098-1106 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-003-0710-6
  12. Kumar AR, Riyazuddin P. Mechanism of volatile hydride formation and their atomization in hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Sci 2005; 21(12): 1401-1410. https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.21.1401
  13. Guo T, Baasner J, Tsalev DL. Fast automated determination of toxicologically relevant arsenic in urine by flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 1997; 349(1): 313-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(97)00276-6
  14. Lee JH, Lee US, Hong SC, Jang BK. A study on the optimal analytical method for the determination of urinary arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. J Environ Health Sci 2009; 35(5): 402-410.
  15. Lee JH, Lee CK, Moon CS, Choi IJ, Lee KJ. Korea national survey for environmental pollutants in the human body 2008: heavy metals in the blood or urine of the Korean population. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2012; 215(4): 449-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.01.002
  16. Park S, Lee BK. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2013; 64: 160-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-012-9808-x
  17. Howard AG and Salou C. Cysteine enhancement of the cryogenic trap hydride AAS determination of dissolved arsenic species. Analytica Chimica Acta 1996; 333: 89-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(96)00256-5
  18. Spevacova V, Cejchanova M, Cerna M, Spevacek V, Smid J, Benes B. Population-based biomonitoring in the Czech Republic: urinary arsenic. J Environ Monit 2002; 4(5): 796-798. https://doi.org/10.1039/b205062p
  19. Shraim A1, Chiswell B, Olszowy H. Speciation of arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) in hydrochloric acid reaction medium. Talanta 1996; 50(5): 1109-1127.
  20. Le XC, Cullen WR, Reimer KJ. Effect of cysteine on the speciation of arsenic by using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 1994; 285(3): 277-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(94)80066-9
  21. Schmeisser E, Goessler W, Kienzl N, Francesconi KA. Volatile analytes formed from arsenosugars: determination by HPLC-HG-ICPMS and implications for arsenic speciation analyses. Anal Chem 2004; 76(2): 418-423. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac034878v
  22. Heitland P, Koster HD. Fast determination of arsenic species and total arsenic in urine by HPLCICP-MS: concentration ranges for unexposed german inhabitants and clinical case studies. J Anal Toxicol 2008; 32(4): 308-314. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/32.4.308
  23. Hinners TA. Arsenic speciation: Limitations with direct hydride analysis. Analyst 1980; 105(1253): 751-755. https://doi.org/10.1039/an9800500751