DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of lactic acid bacteria on changes of aflatoxin levels during kimchi fermentation

젖산균이 김치 발효 중 아플라톡신 함량 변화에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2015.07.28
  • Accepted : 2015.10.12
  • Published : 2015.10.30

Abstract

Red pepper powder sensitive to aflatoxins contamination is major ingredients of kimchi. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the changes in aflatoxin levels during kimchi fermentation. Baechu kimchi was contaminated with aflatoxins ($B_1$, $B_2$, $G_1$, and $G_2$) and inoculated with LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides), and the following characteristics were investigated for 8 weeks: pH, titratable acidity, salinity, microbial properties, and aflatoxin levels. The pH decreased rapidly during storage, and the titratable acidity was increased. The salinity of the samples was shown to increase from 2.30 to 2.40%. The total number of aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in kimchi inoculated with LAB was significantly higher than that of the others. Yeast and molds were detected at approximately 1~3 log CFU/g during storage. Coliforms were detected in the control after 4 weeks, whereas in other samples they were not detected until after 2 weeks. The aflatoxin levels reduced during kimchi fermentation. The average reduction rate of aflatoxin levels during kimchi fermentation was 8.39%, but in kimchi inoculated with Lac. plantarum and Leu. mesenteroides, the rate were 25.16 % and 27.86%, respectively. These results showed that aflatoxins can be removed by LAB during kimchi fermentation.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농림축산식품부, 세계김치연구소

References

  1. Peers FG, Linsell CA (1977) Dietary aflatoxins and human primary liver cancer. Ann Nutr Aliment, 31, 1005-1017
  2. Varga J, Frisvad JC, Samson RA (2011) Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi. Stud Mycol, 69, 57-80 https://doi.org/10.3114/sim.2011.69.05
  3. Mushtaq M, Sultana B, Anwar F, Zargham Khan M, Ashrafuzzaman M (2012) Occurrence of aflatoxins in selected processed foods from Pakistan. Int J Mol Sci, 13, 8324-8337 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13078324
  4. IARC (1993) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans : some naturally occurring substances, food items and constituents, heterocyclic amines and mycotoxins. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, p 489-521
  5. Jegal S, Kim JH, Joo GS, Jung SJ, Na HJ, Jo NG, Lee JM, Kim YH (2013) Survey of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A on commercial dried red pepper and red pepper powder. J Fd Hyg Safety, 28, 267-271 https://doi.org/10.13103/JFHS.2013.28.3.267
  6. Park SY, Moon HJ, Cho SY, Lee JG, Lee HM, Song JY, Cho OS, Cho DH (2011) Monitoring of aflatoxins on commercial herbal medicines. J Fd Hyg Safety, 26, 315-32
  7. Cho SY, Kang IH, Shim YH, Yang DH, Oh SW, Lee BH, Hyeon SY, Chang SY, Jeong CS, Lee YS, Kim YS, Kang SJ (2007) Contamination and detoxification of aflatoxins. Korean J Pharmacogn, 38, 205-216
  8. Kang KJ, Kim HJ, Lee YG, Jung KH, Han SB, Park SH, Oh HY (2010) Administration of mycotoxins in food in Korea. J Fd Hyg Safety, 25, 281-288
  9. Park JW, Yoo MS, Kuk JH, Ji YA, Lee JH (2013) Simultaneous determination and mornitoring of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A in food. J Fd Hyg Safety, 28, 75-82 https://doi.org/10.13103/JFHS.2013.28.1.075
  10. Oh SH, Hwang IG, Kim HY, Hwang CR, Park SM, Hwang Y, Yoo SM, Kim HR, Kim HY, Lee JS, Jeong HS (2011) Quality characteristics by particle size of red pepper powders for pepper paste and kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 40, 599-605 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.4.599
  11. Song YJ, Park SW, Chun SC, Choi MJ, Chung KC, Lee SK (2012) Efficient treatment methods for reducing Escherichia coli populations in commercially-available red pepper powder in Korea. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 41, 875-880 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.6.875
  12. Kang YW, Cho TY, Park HR, Oh KS, Kim DS (2010) Analysis of total aflatoxins in spices and dried fruits. J Fd Hyg Safety, 25, 65-72
  13. Cho SH, Lee CH, Jang MR, Son YW, Lee SM, Choi IS, Kim SH, Kim DB (2008) Aflatoxins contamination in spices and processed spice products commercialized in Korea. Food Chem, 107, 1283-1288 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.049
  14. Kim KY, Nam MJ, Nam BR, Ryu HJ, Song JE (2010) Determination of total aflatoxins in foods by parallelism of ELISA and LC/MS/MS. J Env Hlth Sci., 36, 52-60
  15. Miguel Hernandez Hierro J, Garcia-Villanova Rafael J, Purificacion Rodriguea Torrero, Ivania M, Toruno Fonseca (2008) Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in red paprika for retail sale in Spain-occurrence and evaluation of a simultaneous analytical method. J Agric Food Chem, 56, 751-756 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf073002c
  16. Erdogan A (2004) The aflatoxin contamination of some pepper types sold in Turkey. Chemosphere, 56, 321-325 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.02.020
  17. Hilal Colak, Enver Baris Bingol, Hamparsun Hampikyan, Bulent Nazli (2006) Determination of aflatoxin contamination in red-scaled, red and black pepper by ELISA and HPLC. J Food Drug Anal, 14, 292-296
  18. Salari R, Habibi Najafi MB, Boroushaki MT, Mortazavi SA, Fathi Najafi M (2012) Assessment of the microbiological quality and mycotoxin contamination of Iranian red pepper spice. J Agr Sci Tech, 14, 1511-1521
  19. Makun HA, Mailafiya SC, Saidi AA, Onwuike BC, Onwubiko MU (2012) A preliminary survey of aflatoxin in fresh and dried vegetables in Minna, Nigeria. Afr J Food Sci Technol, 3, 268-272
  20. Park KY (1995) The nutritional evaluation, and antimutagenic and anticancer effects of kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Nutr, 24, 169-182
  21. Lee JY, Park YS, Kim YS, Shin DH (2002) Antimicrobial characteristics of metabolites of lactic acid bacteria isolated from feces of newborn baby and from dongchimi. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 34, 472-479
  22. Stamer JR, Stoyla BO, Dunckel BA (1971) Growth rates and fermentation patterns of lactic acid bacteria associated with sauerkraut fermentation. J Milk Food Technol, 34, 521-525 https://doi.org/10.4315/0022-2747-34.11.521
  23. Mheen TI, Kwon TW (1984) Effect of temperature and salt concentration on Kimchi fermentation. Korean J Food Sci Technol 16, 443-450
  24. Bong YJ, Jeong JK, Park KY (2013) Fermentation properties and increased health functionality of Kimchi by Kimchi lactic acid bacteria starters. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 42, 1717-1726 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.11.1717
  25. Oluwafemi F, Da-Silva FA (2009) Removal of aflatoxins by viable and heat-killed Lactobacillus species isolated from fermented maize. J Appl Biosci, 16, 871-876
  26. Peltonen K, El-Nezami H, Haskard C, Ahokas J, Salminen S (2001) Aflatoxin B1 binding by dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. J Dairy Sci, 84, 2152-2156 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74660-7
  27. Shahin A (2007) Removal of aflatoxin B1 from contaminated liquid media by dairy lactic acid bacteria. Int J Agric Biol, 9, 71-75
  28. Zinedine A, Faid M, Benlemlih M (2005) In vitro reduction of aflatoxin B1 by strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Moroccan sourdough bread. Int J Agric Biol, 7, 67-70
  29. Ku KH, Kang KO, Kim WJ (1998) Some quality changes during fermentation of kimchi. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 20, 476-482
  30. Ko YT, Baik IH (2002) Changes in pH, sensory properties and volatile odor components of kimchi by heating. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 34, 1123-1126
  31. Kim WJ, Kang KO, Kyung KH, Shin JI (1991) Addition of salts and their mixtures for improvements of storage stability of kimchi. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 23, 188-191
  32. So MH, Shin MY, Kim YB (1996) Effects of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterial starter on Kimchi fermentation. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 28, 806-813
  33. Kang SS, Kim JM, Byun MW (1988) Preservation of Kimchi by ionizing radiation. Korean J Food Hygiene, 3, 225-232
  34. Hwang IG, Kim HY, Hwang Y, Yoo SM, Jeong HS, Lee JS, Kim HY (2011) Effects of mashed red pepper on the quality characteristics of Kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 40, 1769-1775 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.12.1769
  35. Park SH, Lee JH (2005) The correlation of physicochemical characteristics of kimchi with sourness and overall acceptability. Korean J Food Cookery Sci, 21, 103-109
  36. Bang BH, Seo JS, Jeong EJ (2008) A method for maintaining good Kimchi quality during fermentation. Korean J Food Nutr, 21, 51-55
  37. Ryu JY, Lee HS, Rhe HS (1984) Changes of organic acids and volatile flavor compounds in kimchis fermented with different ingredients. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 16, 169-174
  38. Shin JH, Kim RJ, Kang MJ, Kim GM, Sung NJ (2012) Quality and fermentation characteristics of garlic-added Kimchi. Korean J Food Preserv, 19, 539-546 https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2012.19.4.539
  39. Yi SH, Park SY, Jeong DH, Kim JY, Lee AJ, Shing HA, Moon JH, Lee J H, Kim SE, Ryou HJ, Om AS (2009) Survey research of homemade and commercial cabbage (Baechu) Kimchi on physicochemical quality characteristics. Korean J Food Cookery Sci, 25, 671-676
  40. Seo HJ, Han SY, Choi HS, Han GJ, Park HY (2012) Quality characteristics of cabbage Kimchi by different packaging materials. Korean J Food Cookery Sci, 28, 207-214 https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2012.28.2.207
  41. Park HY, Ahn JA, Seo HJ, Choi HS (2011) Quality characteristics of small package Kimchi according to packing material and storage temperature. Korean J Food Cookery Sci, 27, 63-73 https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2011.27.1.063
  42. Kim YS, Shin DH (2008) Hygienic superiority of Kimchi. J food Hyg Safety, 23, 91-97
  43. Han GJ, Choi HS, Lee SM, Lee EJ, Park SE, Park KY (2011) Addition of starters in pasteurized brined baechu cabbage increased kimchi quality and health functionality. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 40, 110-115 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.1.110
  44. Chang HW, Kim KH, Nam YD, Roh SW, Kim MS, Jeon CO, Oh HM, Bae JW (2008) Analysis of yeast and archaeal population dynamics in kimchi using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Int J Food Microbiol, 126, 159-166 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.05.013
  45. Hung LD, Kyung KH (2006) Inhibition of yeast film formation in fermented vegetable by materials derived from garlic using cucumber pickle fermentation as a model system. Food Sci Biotechnol, 15, 469-473
  46. Chang JY, Kim IC, Chang HC (2014) Effect of solar salt on Kimchi fermentation during long-term storage. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 46, 456-464 https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2014.46.4.456
  47. Shin SM, Park JY, Kim EJ, Han YS (2005) Investigation of some harmful bacteria in commercial Kimchi. Korean J Food Cookery Sci, 21, 195-200
  48. Oh KS, Suh JH, Sho YS, Park SS, Chio WJ, Lee JO, Kim HY, Woo GJ (2007) Exposure assessment of total aflatoxin in foods. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 39, 25-28
  49. Haskard CA, El-Nezami HS, Kankaanpa PE, Salminen S, Ahokas JT (2001) Surface binding of aflatoxin $B_1$ by lactic acid bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol, 67, 3086-3091 https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.7.3086-3091.2001
  50. Haskard C, Binnion C, Ahokas J (2000) Factors affecting the sequestration of aflatoxin by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Chem Biol Interact, 128, 39-49 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2797(00)00186-1