Occurrence of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants (OPFRs) in Nakdong River Basin : Mainstreams, Tributaries and STP Effluents

낙동강 수계에서의 유기인계 난연제류 검출 현황 : 본류, 지류 및 하수처리장 방류수

  • Received : 2015.01.19
  • Accepted : 2015.07.15
  • Published : 2015.07.31


This study was investigated occurrence and distribution patterns of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in Nakdong River basin (mainstream, tributaries and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents). 3 (TCEP, TCPP and TBEP) out of 9 OPFRs were detected in 6 out of 20 sampling sites (mainstream and tributaries), The TCPP and TBEP concentration levels in mainstream samples were ND~114.9 ng/L ng/L and ND~49.1 ng/L, respectively. And the TCEP, TCPP and TBEP concentration levels in tributary samples were ND~1,865.3 ng/L, ND~519.2 ng/L and ND~210.4 ng/L, respectively. 4 (TBP, TCEP, TCPP and TBEP) out of 9 OPFRs were detected in effluents of 11 STPs around the Nakdong River basin. The TBP, TCEP, TCPP and TBEP concentration levels in 11 STP effluents were ND~458.5 ng/L, ND~2,932.7 ng/L, ND~1,320.7 ng/L and ND~655.2 ng/L, respectively. According to the sampling season, change ranges of distribution patterns and detected concentrations of OPFRs were highly variable in the same sampling sites.


Organophosphorus Flame Retardants (OPFRs);TCPP;TCEP;Nakdong River Basin;STP Effluent;GC-MS/MS


  1. Haman, C., Dauchy, X., Rosin, C. and Munoz, J. F., "Occurrence, fate and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments: a review," Water Res., 68, 1-11(2015).
  2. Van der Veen, I. and De Boer, J., "Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis," Chemosphere, 88, 1119-1153(2012).
  3. Kemmlein, S., Hahn, O. and Jann, O., "Emissions of organophosphate and brominated flame retardants from selected consumer products and building materials," Atmos. Environ., 37, 5485-5493(2003).
  4. UNEP, "Outcome of the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties Relevant to the Work of the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, UNEP/POPS/POPRC.5/INF/3(2009).
  5. Ni, Y., Kumagai, K. and Yanagisawa, Y., "Measuring emissions of organophosphate flame retardants using a passive flux sampler," Atmos. Environ., 41, 3235-3240(2007).
  6. Follmann, W. and Wober, J., "Investigation of cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and estrogenic effects of the flame retardants tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) and tris-(2-chloropropyl)-phosphate (TCPP) in vitro," Toxicol. Lett., 161, 124-134(2006).
  7. Dishaw, L. V., Powers, C. M., Ryde, I. T., Roberts, S. C., Seidler, F. J., Slotkin, T. A. and Stapleton, H. M., "Is the pentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells," Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 256, 281-289(2011).
  8. Andresen, J. A., Grundmann, A. and Bester, K., "Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticisers in surface waters," Sci. Total Environ., 332, 155-166(2004).
  9. Seo, C. D., Son, H. J., Yoom, H. S., Choi, J. T., Ryu, D. C., Kwon, K. W. and Jang, S. H., "Analysis of synthetic fragrances (SFs) in water using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and GC-MS/MS," J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng., 36(6), 387-395(2014).
  10. Seo, C. D., Son, H. J., Jung, J. M., Choi, J. T. and Jang, S. H., "Analysis of UV filters in water using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and GC/MS-MS," J. Environ. Sci. Intl., 23(6), 1037-1047(2014).
  11. Seo, C. D., Son, H. J., Lee, I. S. and Oh, J. E., "Detection of synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) in Nakdong river basin," J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng., 32(6), 615-624(2010).
  12. Son, H. J., Hwang, Y. D., Yoom, H. S., Choi, J. T. and Kwon, K. W., "Detection of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Nakdong river basin," J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng., 35 (2), 84-93(2013).
  13. Martinez-Carballo, E., Gonzalez-Barreiro, C., Sitka, A., Scharf, S. and Gans, O., "Determination of selected organophosphate esters in the aquatic environment of Austria," Sci. Total Environ., 388, 290-299(2007).
  14. Marklund, A., Andersson, B. and Haglund, P., "Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in Swedish sewage treatment plants," Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 7423-7429(2005).
  15. Cristale, J., Katsoyiannis, A., Sweetman, A. J., Jones, K. C. and Lacorte, S., "Occurrence and risk assessment of Organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants in the River Aire (UK)," Environ. Pollut., 179, 194-200(2013).
  16. Reemtsma, T., Garcia-Lopez, M., Rodriguez, I., Quintana, J. B. and Rodil, I., "Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in water and air I. Occurrence and fate," TrAC, 27, 727-737(2008).
  17. Meyer, J. and Bester, K., "Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in wastewater treatment plants," J. Environ. Monit., 6, 599-605(2004).
  18. Rodil, R., Quintana, J. B., Concha-Grana, E., Lopez-Mahia, P., Muniategui-Lorenzo, S. and Prada-Rodriguez, D., "Emerging pollutants in sewage, surface and drinking water in Galicia (NW Spain)," Chemosphere, 86, 1040-1049(2012).
  19. Gao, Z., Deng, Y., Hu, X., Yang, S., Sun, C. and He, H., "Determination of organophosphate esters in water samples using an ionic liquid-based sol-gel fiber for headspace solidphase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame photometric detector," J. Chromatogr. A, 1300, 141-150(2013).
  20. Bollmann, U. E., Moller, A., Xie, Z., Ebinghaus, R. and Einax, J. W., "Occurrence and fate of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in costal and marine surface waters," Water Res., 46, 531-538(2012).
  21. Kim, S. D., Cho, J., Kim, I. S., Vanderford, B. J. and Snyder, S. A., "Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in South Koren surface, drinking, and waste waters," Water Res., 41, 1013-1021(2007).
  22. Green, N., Schlabach, M., Bakke, T., Brevik, E. M., Dye, C., Herzke, D., Huber, S., Plosz, B., Remberger, M., Schoyen, M., Uggerud, H. T. and Vogelsang, C., Screening of Selected Metals and New Organic Contaminants 2007, Norwegian Pollution Control Agency(2008).
  23. Garcia-Lopez, M., Rodriguez, I. and Cela, R., "Evaluation of liquid-liquid microextraction using polypropylene microporous membranes for the determination of organophosphorus flame retardants and plastcizers in water samples," Anal. Chim. Acta, 625, 145-153(2008).
  24. Tsao, Y. C., Wang, Y. C., Wu, S. F. and Ding, W. H., "Microassisted headspace solid-phase microextraction for the rapid determination of organophosphate esters in aqueous samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," Talanta, 84, 406-410(2011).
  25. Wang, X., He, Y., Lin, L., Zeng, F. and Luan, T., "Application of fully automatic hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction to assess the distribution of organophosphate esters in the Pearl River Estuaries," Sci. Total Environ., 470-471, 263-269(2014).
  26. Bacaloni, A., Cavaliere, C., Foglia, P., Nazzari, M., Samperi, R. and Laganà, A., "Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry determination of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in drinking and surface waters," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 21(7), 1123-1130(2007).
  27. Yan, X., He, H., Peng, Y., Wang, X., Gao, Z., Yang, S. and Sun, C., "Determination of organophosphorus flame retardants in surface water by solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," Chin. J. Anal. Chem., 40(11), 1693-1697(2012).
  28. Bacaloni, A., Gucci, F., Guarino, C., Nazzari, M., Samperi, R. and Lagana, A., "Occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardant and plasticizers in three volcanic lakes of central Italy," Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 1898-1903(2008).

Cited by

  1. Occurrence of Benzotriazoles, Benzothiazoles and Benzenesulfonamides in the Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents in Nakdong River Basin vol.40, pp.3, 2018,