DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

낙동강 수계에서의 유기인계 난연제류 검출 현황 : 본류, 지류 및 하수처리장 방류수

Occurrence of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants (OPFRs) in Nakdong River Basin : Mainstreams, Tributaries and STP Effluents

  • Received : 2015.01.19
  • Accepted : 2015.07.15
  • Published : 2015.07.31

Abstract

낙동강 수계에서의 유기인계 난연제류(OPFRs) 검출현황을 조사한 결과, 본류 및 지류 20지점 중 6지점에서 TCEP, TCPP 및 TBEP 3종이 검출되었으며, 본류에서는 고령에서만 TCPP가 ND~114.9 ng/L 및 TBEP가 ND~49.1 ng/L의 농도로 검출되었으며, 지류의 경우는 금호강 상류, 신천, 금호강 하류, 진천천 및 양산천에서 TCEP가 ND~1,865.3 ng/L, TCPP가 ND~519.2 ng/L 및 TBEP가 ND~210.4 ng/L의 농도로 검출되었다. 낙동강 주변에 위치한 11개 하수처리장 방류수들에서는 TBP, TCEP, TCPP 및 TBEP 4종이 각각 ND~458.5 ng/L, ND~2,932.7 ng/L, ND~1,320.7 ng/L 및 ND~655.2 ng/L의 농도로 검출되었다. 낙동강 수계 및 낙동강 주변에 위치한 11개 하수처리장 방류수들에서의 계절별 OPFRs 분포비율을 분석한 결과, 동일 지점에서도 채수시기에 따라 검출농도 뿐만 아니라 구성종 비율의 변화폭도 매우 크게 나타났다.

Keywords

유기인계 난연제;낙동강 수계;하수처리장 방류수

References

  1. Haman, C., Dauchy, X., Rosin, C. and Munoz, J. F., "Occurrence, fate and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments: a review," Water Res., 68, 1-11(2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.09.030
  2. Van der Veen, I. and De Boer, J., "Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis," Chemosphere, 88, 1119-1153(2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.03.067
  3. Kemmlein, S., Hahn, O. and Jann, O., "Emissions of organophosphate and brominated flame retardants from selected consumer products and building materials," Atmos. Environ., 37, 5485-5493(2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.025
  4. UNEP, "Outcome of the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties Relevant to the Work of the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, UNEP/POPS/POPRC.5/INF/3(2009).
  5. Ni, Y., Kumagai, K. and Yanagisawa, Y., "Measuring emissions of organophosphate flame retardants using a passive flux sampler," Atmos. Environ., 41, 3235-3240(2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.080
  6. Follmann, W. and Wober, J., "Investigation of cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and estrogenic effects of the flame retardants tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) and tris-(2-chloropropyl)-phosphate (TCPP) in vitro," Toxicol. Lett., 161, 124-134(2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.08.008
  7. Dishaw, L. V., Powers, C. M., Ryde, I. T., Roberts, S. C., Seidler, F. J., Slotkin, T. A. and Stapleton, H. M., "Is the pentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells," Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 256, 281-289(2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2011.01.005
  8. Andresen, J. A., Grundmann, A. and Bester, K., "Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticisers in surface waters," Sci. Total Environ., 332, 155-166(2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.04.021
  9. Seo, C. D., Son, H. J., Yoom, H. S., Choi, J. T., Ryu, D. C., Kwon, K. W. and Jang, S. H., "Analysis of synthetic fragrances (SFs) in water using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and GC-MS/MS," J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng., 36(6), 387-395(2014). https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2014.36.6.387
  10. Seo, C. D., Son, H. J., Jung, J. M., Choi, J. T. and Jang, S. H., "Analysis of UV filters in water using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and GC/MS-MS," J. Environ. Sci. Intl., 23(6), 1037-1047(2014). https://doi.org/10.5322/JESI.2014.23.6.1037
  11. Seo, C. D., Son, H. J., Lee, I. S. and Oh, J. E., "Detection of synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) in Nakdong river basin," J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng., 32(6), 615-624(2010).
  12. Son, H. J., Hwang, Y. D., Yoom, H. S., Choi, J. T. and Kwon, K. W., "Detection of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Nakdong river basin," J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng., 35 (2), 84-93(2013). https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2013.35.2.084
  13. Martinez-Carballo, E., Gonzalez-Barreiro, C., Sitka, A., Scharf, S. and Gans, O., "Determination of selected organophosphate esters in the aquatic environment of Austria," Sci. Total Environ., 388, 290-299(2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.08.005
  14. Marklund, A., Andersson, B. and Haglund, P., "Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in Swedish sewage treatment plants," Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 7423-7429(2005). https://doi.org/10.1021/es051013l
  15. Cristale, J., Katsoyiannis, A., Sweetman, A. J., Jones, K. C. and Lacorte, S., "Occurrence and risk assessment of Organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants in the River Aire (UK)," Environ. Pollut., 179, 194-200(2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.04.001
  16. Reemtsma, T., Garcia-Lopez, M., Rodriguez, I., Quintana, J. B. and Rodil, I., "Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in water and air I. Occurrence and fate," TrAC, 27, 727-737(2008).
  17. Meyer, J. and Bester, K., "Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in wastewater treatment plants," J. Environ. Monit., 6, 599-605(2004). https://doi.org/10.1039/b403206c
  18. Rodil, R., Quintana, J. B., Concha-Grana, E., Lopez-Mahia, P., Muniategui-Lorenzo, S. and Prada-Rodriguez, D., "Emerging pollutants in sewage, surface and drinking water in Galicia (NW Spain)," Chemosphere, 86, 1040-1049(2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.11.053
  19. Gao, Z., Deng, Y., Hu, X., Yang, S., Sun, C. and He, H., "Determination of organophosphate esters in water samples using an ionic liquid-based sol-gel fiber for headspace solidphase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame photometric detector," J. Chromatogr. A, 1300, 141-150(2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2013.02.089
  20. Bollmann, U. E., Moller, A., Xie, Z., Ebinghaus, R. and Einax, J. W., "Occurrence and fate of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in costal and marine surface waters," Water Res., 46, 531-538(2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.11.028
  21. Kim, S. D., Cho, J., Kim, I. S., Vanderford, B. J. and Snyder, S. A., "Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in South Koren surface, drinking, and waste waters," Water Res., 41, 1013-1021(2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.06.034
  22. Green, N., Schlabach, M., Bakke, T., Brevik, E. M., Dye, C., Herzke, D., Huber, S., Plosz, B., Remberger, M., Schoyen, M., Uggerud, H. T. and Vogelsang, C., Screening of Selected Metals and New Organic Contaminants 2007, Norwegian Pollution Control Agency(2008).
  23. Garcia-Lopez, M., Rodriguez, I. and Cela, R., "Evaluation of liquid-liquid microextraction using polypropylene microporous membranes for the determination of organophosphorus flame retardants and plastcizers in water samples," Anal. Chim. Acta, 625, 145-153(2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.07.026
  24. Tsao, Y. C., Wang, Y. C., Wu, S. F. and Ding, W. H., "Microassisted headspace solid-phase microextraction for the rapid determination of organophosphate esters in aqueous samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," Talanta, 84, 406-410(2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2011.01.055
  25. Wang, X., He, Y., Lin, L., Zeng, F. and Luan, T., "Application of fully automatic hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction to assess the distribution of organophosphate esters in the Pearl River Estuaries," Sci. Total Environ., 470-471, 263-269(2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.09.069
  26. Bacaloni, A., Cavaliere, C., Foglia, P., Nazzari, M., Samperi, R. and Laganà, A., "Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry determination of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in drinking and surface waters," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 21(7), 1123-1130(2007). https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.2937
  27. Yan, X., He, H., Peng, Y., Wang, X., Gao, Z., Yang, S. and Sun, C., "Determination of organophosphorus flame retardants in surface water by solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," Chin. J. Anal. Chem., 40(11), 1693-1697(2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2040(11)60586-0
  28. Bacaloni, A., Gucci, F., Guarino, C., Nazzari, M., Samperi, R. and Lagana, A., "Occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardant and plasticizers in three volcanic lakes of central Italy," Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 1898-1903(2008). https://doi.org/10.1021/es702549g

Cited by

  1. Occurrence of Benzotriazoles, Benzothiazoles and Benzenesulfonamides in the Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents in Nakdong River Basin vol.40, pp.3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2018.40.3.147