Head and neck extra nodal NHL (HNENL) - Treatment Outcome and Pattern of failure - A Single Institution Experience

  • Giridhar, Prashanth (Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mallick, Supriya (Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Bhasker, Suman (Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Pathy, Sushmita (Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan (Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Biswas, Ahitagni (Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Sharma, Atul (Department of Medical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2015.10.06


Background: Extra nodal lymphoma (ENL) constitutes about 33 % of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 18-28% develops in the head and neck region. A multimodality treatment with multi-agent chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) is considered optimum. Materials and Methods: We retrieved the treatment charts of patients of HNENL treated in our institute from 2001-2012. The charts were reviewed and the demographic, treatment details and outcome of HNENL patients were retrieved using predesigned pro-forma. Results: We retrieved data of 75consecutive patients HNENL. Median age was 47years (Range: 8-76 years). Of the 75 patients 51 were male and 24 were female. 55patients were evaluable. The patient and tumor characteristics are summarized in Table 1. All patients were staged comprehensively with contrast enhanced computed tomography of head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy 66 patients received a combination multi-agent CT with CHOP being the commonest regimen. 42 patients received 4 or lesser number of cycles of chemotherapy whereas 24received more than 4 cycles chemotherapy. Post radiotherapy, 41 out of 42 patients had a complete response at 3 months. Only 21patients had a complete response after chemotherapy. All patients received radiation (mostly involved field radiation) as a part of the treatment. The median radiation dose was 45 Gray (Range: 36 Gray-50 Gray). The radiation was planned by 2D fluoro simulation based technique in 37cases and by 3 Dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in 36 cases. Two patients were planned by the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. IMRT was planned for one thyroid and one nasal cavity primary. 5 patients experienced relapse after a median follow up of 19 months. The median survival was not reached. The estimated two and three year survival were 92.9% (95%CI- 68.6- 95.35) and 88% (95%CI- 60.82 - 92.66) respectively. Univariate analysis revealed higher stage and poorer baseline performance status to be significantly associated with worse progression free survival. 5 patients progressed (relapse or primary disease progression) after treatment. Of the 5 patients, two patients were primary orbital NHL, two patients had NHL nasal cavity and one was NHL thyroid. Conclusions: Combined modality treatment in HNENL confers excellent disease control with acceptable side effects.


Head and neck;extra nodal;NHL;chemotherapy;radiotherapy;India


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