Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 Polymorphisms, Cigarette Smoking and HPV Infection in Precancerous and Cancerous Lesions of the Uterine Cervix

  • Sharma, Anita (Division of Molecular Diagnostics, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology) ;
  • Gupta, Sanjay (Division of Cytopathology, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology) ;
  • Sodhani, Pushpa (Division of Cytopathology, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology) ;
  • Singh, Veena (Division of Clinical Oncology, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology) ;
  • Sehgal, Ashok (Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology) ;
  • Sardana, Sarita (Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology) ;
  • Mehrotra, Ravi (Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology) ;
  • Sharma, Joginder Kumar (Division of Molecular Diagnostics, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology)
  • Published : 2015.10.06


Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of carcinogenic electrophiles. The null genotypes in GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been implicated in carcinogenesis. Present study was planned to evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene loci in cervical carcinogenesis. The study was conducted in Lok Nayak hospital, New Delhi. DNA from clinical scrapes of 482 women with minor gynaecologic complaints attending Gynaecology OPD and tumor biopsies of 135 cervical cancer cases attending the cancer clinic was extracted. HPV DNA was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using L1 consensus primer pair. Polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were analysed by multiplex PCR procedures. Differences in proportions were tested using Pearson's Chi-square test with Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The risk of cervical cancer was almost three times in women with GSTM1 homozygous null genotype (OR-2.62, 95%CI, 1.77-3.88; p<0.0001). No association of GSTM1 or GSTT1 homozygous null genotypes was observed in women with normal, precancerous and cervical cancerous lesions among ${\leq}35$ or >35 years of age groups. Smokers with null GSTT1 genotype had a higher risk of cervical cancer as compared to non-smokers (OR-3.01, 95% CI, 1.10-8.23; p=0.03). The results further showed that a significant increased risk of cervical cancer was observed in HPV positive smoker women with GSTT1 (OR-4.36, 95% CI, 1.27-15.03; p=0.02) and GSTM1T1 (OR-3.87, 95% CI, 1.05-14.23; p=0.04) homozygous null genotypes as compared to HPV positive non smokers. The results demonstrate that the GST null genotypes were alone not associated with the development of cervical cancer, but interacted with smoking and HPV to exert effects in our Delhi population.


Cervical cancer;GST polymorphisms;GSTM1;GSTT1;smoking;Pap smear;HPV


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