Exploratory Study to Evaluate Changes in Serum Lipid Levels as Early Diagnostic and/or Prognostic Indicators for Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Cancer among Gutkha Consumers in India

  • Agarwal, Ankit ;
  • Saxena, Anshul ;
  • Rubens, Muni ;
  • Ahuja, Rinky ;
  • Tijare, Manisha
  • Published : 2015.10.06


Background: In India smokeless tobacco users account for 25.9% of total tobacco use, Gutkha being the most common form. This study evaluated the association between serum lipid profile and Gutkha use as an early diagnostic and/or prognostic indicator for oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral cancer (Oral Ca) in non-smokers and non-alcohol consumers. Materials and Methods: A total of 163 participants were recruited from two sites in India. Participants were divided into four groups: individuals without any Gutkha chewing habit and without any oral lesions (control group), individuals with Gutkha chewing habit but without any oral lesions (GWL), patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of OSMF, and patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Oral Ca. Mixed linear modelling (MLM) was conducted to detect the change in mean serum lipid levels among four groups. Results: The sample consisted of 69% males and 31% females. Results of MLM show an inverse relationship between serum lipid levels in OSMF, and Oral Ca groups when compared to the control group. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that GWL, OSMF and Oral Ca patients had lower serum lipid levels. Low serum lipid levels could be an indicator of initial neoplastic changes in oral cancer.


Oral cancer;oral submucous fibrosis;gutkha;serum lipid levels


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