- Volume 16 Issue 15
DOI QR Code
Exploratory Study to Evaluate Changes in Serum Lipid Levels as Early Diagnostic and/or Prognostic Indicators for Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Cancer among Gutkha Consumers in India
- Agarwal, Ankit (Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Peoples College of Dental Science and Research Center) ;
- Saxena, Anshul (Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Robert Stempel College of Public Health & Social Work, Florida International University) ;
- Rubens, Muni (Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Robert Stempel College of Public Health & Social Work, Florida International University) ;
- Ahuja, Rinky (Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Peoples College of Dental Science and Research Center) ;
- Tijare, Manisha (Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Peoples College of Dental Science and Research Center)
- Published : 2015.10.06
Background: In India smokeless tobacco users account for 25.9% of total tobacco use, Gutkha being the most common form. This study evaluated the association between serum lipid profile and Gutkha use as an early diagnostic and/or prognostic indicator for oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral cancer (Oral Ca) in non-smokers and non-alcohol consumers. Materials and Methods: A total of 163 participants were recruited from two sites in India. Participants were divided into four groups: individuals without any Gutkha chewing habit and without any oral lesions (control group), individuals with Gutkha chewing habit but without any oral lesions (GWL), patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of OSMF, and patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Oral Ca. Mixed linear modelling (MLM) was conducted to detect the change in mean serum lipid levels among four groups. Results: The sample consisted of 69% males and 31% females. Results of MLM show an inverse relationship between serum lipid levels in OSMF, and Oral Ca groups when compared to the control group. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that GWL, OSMF and Oral Ca patients had lower serum lipid levels. Low serum lipid levels could be an indicator of initial neoplastic changes in oral cancer.
Oral cancer;oral submucous fibrosis;gutkha;serum lipid levels
- Ames BN (1983). Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens oxygen radicals and degenerative diseases. Science, 221, 1256-64. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.6351251
- Anantharaman D, Chabrier A, Gaborieau V, et al (2014). Genetic variants in nicotine addiction and alcohol metabolism genes, oral cancer risk and the propensity to smoke and drink alcohol: a replication study in India. PloS one, 9, 88240. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088240
- Aruna DS, Prasad KV, Shavi GR, et al (2011). Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1561-6.
Athirajan V, Razak IA, Thurairajah N, et al (2014). High Serum Level of Retinol and
$\alpha$-Tocopherol Affords Protection Against Oral Cancer in a Multiethnic Population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 8183-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.19.8183
- Baig S, Lucky MH, Qamar A, et al (2012). Human papilloma virus and oral lesions in gutka eating subjects in Karachi. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 22, 135-8.
- Bailwad SA, Singh N, Jani DR, et al (2014). Alterations in serum lipid profile patterns in oral cancer: correlation with histological grading and tobacco abuse. Oral Health Dent Manag, 13, 573-9.
- Baskar AA, Manoharan S, Manivasagam T, et al (2004). Temporal patterns of lipid peroxidation product formation and antioxidants activity in oral cancer patients. Cell Mol Biol Lett, 9, 665-73.
- Brown MS, Kovanen PT, Goldstein JL (1981). Regulation of plasma cholesterol by lipoprotein receptors. Science, 212, 628-35. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.6261329
- Budd D, Ginsberg H (1986). Hypocholesterolemia and acute myelogenous leukemia: Association between disease activity and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Cancer, 58, 1361-5. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19860915)58:6<1361::AID-CNCR2820580630>3.0.CO;2-S
- CDC. 2014. Epi Info software version 7.1.5 [Online]. Centers for disease control and prevention.
- Chaturvedi AK (2014). Global burden of human papillomaviruspositive head and neck cancers. Lancet Oncol, 15, 1282-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71029-0
- Chawda JG, Jain SS, Patel HR, et al (2011). The relationship between serum lipid levels and the risk of oral cancer. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol, 32, 34-7. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5851.81888
- Chyou P-h, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN, et al (1992). Prospective study of serum cholesterol and site-specific cancers. J Clin Epidemiol, 45, 287-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356(92)90089-6
- Cleveland Clinic. 2014. Normal range for blood lipid profile [Online].
- Combes J-D, Franceschi S (2014). Role of human papillomavirus in non-oropharyngeal head and neck cancers. Oral Oncol, 50, 370-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.11.004
- Dal Maso L, Torelli N, Biancotto E, et al (2015). Combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the risk of head and neck cancers: a re-analysis of case-control studies using bi-dimensional spline models. Eur J Epidemiol, [Epub ahead of print]
- Garg D, Sunil MK, Singh PP, et al (2014). Serum lipid profile in oral precancer and cancer: a diagnostic or prognostic marker? J Int Oral Health, 6, 33-9.
- Goel P, Garg R, Raghavan V (2014). Lipid profile in oral potentially malignant disorders. J Indian Academy Oral Med Radiol, 26, 374. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-1363.155633
- Gordon DJ, Probstfield JL, Garrison RJ, et al (1989). Highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Four prospective American studies. Circulation, 79, 8-15. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.79.1.8
- Goyal S, Tiwari VK, Nair KS, et al (2014). Risk Factors and Costs of Oral Cancer in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1659-65. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.4.1659
- Gupta PC, Ray CS (2003). Smokeless tobacco and health in India and South Asia. Respirol, 8, 419-31. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00507.x
- Halton JM, Nazir DJ, McQueen MJ, et al (1998). Blood lipid profiles in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer, 83, 379-84. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19980715)83:2<379::AID-CNCR24>3.0.CO;2-P
- Kark J, Smith A, Hames C (1982). Serum retinol and the inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and cancer. British Med J, 284, 152. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.284.6310.152
- Krishna A, Singh RK, Singh S, et al (2014). Demographic risk factors, affected anatomical sites and clinicopathological profile for oral squamous cell carcinoma in a North Indian Population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 6755-60. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.16.6755
- Lohe VK, Degwekar SS, Bhowate RR, et al (2010). Evaluation of correlation of serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and precancer and its association with tobacco abuse. J Oral Pathol Med, 39, 141-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0714.2009.00828.x
- Mehrotra R, Pandya S, Chaudhary AK, et al (2009). Lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis. Lipids Health Dis, 8, 2-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-8-2
- Mehta R, Gurudath S, Dayansoor S, et al (2014). Serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and oral precancerous conditions. Dental Res J, 11, 345.
- Nair U, Bartsch H, Nair J (2004). Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms. Mutagenesis, 19, 251-62. https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/geh036
- Neerupakam M, Alaparthi RK, Sathish S, et al (2014). Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in oral cancer. J Indian Academy Oral Med Radiol, 26, 274. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-1363.145004
- Patel P, Shah M, Jha F, et al (2004). Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in head and neck cancer and oral precancerous conditions. Indian J Cancer, 41, 25.
- Poorey VK, Thakur P (2015). Alteration of lipid profile in patients with head and neck malignancy. Indian J OtolaryngolHead & Neck Surgery, 1-6.
- Raffy S, Teissie J (1999). Control of lipid membrane stability by cholesterol content. Biophysical J, 76, 2072-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(99)77363-7
- Rose G, Shipley M (1980). Plasma lipids and mortality: a source of error. Lancet, 315, 523-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(80)92775-0
- Sherubin EJ, Kannan KS, Kumar DN, et al (2013). Estimation of plasma lipids and its significance on histopathological grades in oral cancer: Prognostic significance an original research. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, 17, 4-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-029X.110685
- Singh S, Ramesh V, Premalatha B, et al (2013). Alterations in serum lipid profile patterns in oral cancer. J Nat Sci Biol Med, 4, 374-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.116994
- Srinivas GV, Namala S, Ananthaneni A, et al (2013). Evaluation and correlation of serum lipid profile in oral and gastrointestinal cancer patients. J Int Oral Health, 5, 72-7.
- Strohmaier S, Edlinger M, Manjer J, et al (2013). Total serum cholesterol and cancer incidence in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can). PLoS One, 8, 54242. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054242
- Taqi SA (2012). Clinical evaluation of total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in oral precancer and oral cancer. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol, 33, 36-41. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5851.96967
- WHO. 2010. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) [Online]. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
- WHO. 2015. Prevalence of tobacco use [Online].
- Williams KJ, Fless GM, Petrie KA, et al (1992). Mechanisms by which lipoprotein lipase alters cellular metabolism of lipoprotein (a), low density lipoprotein, and nascent lipoproteins. Roles for low density lipoprotein receptors and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. J Biological Chem, 267, 13284-92.
- Wiwanitkit S, Wiwanitkit V (2011). Serum lipid and oral cancer. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol, 32, 184. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5851.92833