Patterns of Esophageal Cancer in the National Cancer Institute at the University of Gezira, in Gezira State, Sudan, in 1999-2012

  • Gasmelseed, Nagla (National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Abudris, Daffalla (National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Elhaj, Ahmed (National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Eltayeb, Elgaylani A (National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Elmadani, Ahmed (National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Elhassan, Moawia M (National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Mohammed, Khadiga (National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Elgaili, Elgaili M (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira) ;
  • Elbalal, Moawia (Gezira Center for Gastroenterology and Laparoscopic Surgery) ;
  • Schuz, Joachim (Section of Environment and Radiation, International Agency for Research on Cancer) ;
  • Leon, Maria E (Section of Environment and Radiation, International Agency for Research on Cancer)
  • Published : 2015.10.06


Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the most common malignancies in Eastern Africa, but the occurrence of EC in Sudan has rarely been described in the scientific literature. This paper reports the results of a consecutive case series of all EC patients who visited one of the two public cancer treatment centers in the country in 1999-2012, providing a first description of this disease in a treatment center located in central Sudan. Materials and Methods: Clinical and demographic data for all EC patients who visited the Department of Oncology of the National Cancer Institute at the University of Gezira (NCI-UG) from 1999 to the end of 2012 were abstracted and tabulated by sex, tumor type and other characteristics. Results: A total of 448 EC patients visited NCI-UG in 1999-2012, and the annual number of EC cases increased steadily from 1999. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the predominant EC tumor type (90%), and adenocarcinoma (ADC) was reported in 9.4% of the EC cases. The overall male-to-female ratio for EC was 1:1.8, but the ratio was tumor type-dependent, being 1:2 for SCC and 2:1 for ADC. Only 20% of EC patients reported having ever used tobacco and/or alcohol, and the vast majority of these patients were male. At the time of EC diagnosis, 47.3% of the patients resided in Gezira State. Some EC patients from Gezira State seek out-of-state treatment in the national capital of Khartoum instead of visiting NCI-UG. Conclusions: The annual number of EC patients visiting NCI-UG has increased in recent years, approximately half of these patients being from Gezira State. Although this consecutive series of EC patients who visited NCI-UG was complete, it did not capture all EC patients from the state. A populationbased cancer registry would provide more complete data required to better understand EC patterns and risk factors.


Esophageal cancer;case series;hospital-based;Gezira State;Sudan


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