- Volume 16 Issue 15
DOI QR Code
Patterns of Esophageal Cancer in the National Cancer Institute at the University of Gezira, in Gezira State, Sudan, in 1999-2012
- Gasmelseed, Nagla (National Cancer Institute) ;
- Abudris, Daffalla (National Cancer Institute) ;
- Elhaj, Ahmed (National Cancer Institute) ;
- Eltayeb, Elgaylani A (National Cancer Institute) ;
- Elmadani, Ahmed (National Cancer Institute) ;
- Elhassan, Moawia M (National Cancer Institute) ;
- Mohammed, Khadiga (National Cancer Institute) ;
- Elgaili, Elgaili M (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira) ;
- Elbalal, Moawia (Gezira Center for Gastroenterology and Laparoscopic Surgery) ;
- Schuz, Joachim (Section of Environment and Radiation, International Agency for Research on Cancer) ;
- Leon, Maria E (Section of Environment and Radiation, International Agency for Research on Cancer)
- Published : 2015.10.06
Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the most common malignancies in Eastern Africa, but the occurrence of EC in Sudan has rarely been described in the scientific literature. This paper reports the results of a consecutive case series of all EC patients who visited one of the two public cancer treatment centers in the country in 1999-2012, providing a first description of this disease in a treatment center located in central Sudan. Materials and Methods: Clinical and demographic data for all EC patients who visited the Department of Oncology of the National Cancer Institute at the University of Gezira (NCI-UG) from 1999 to the end of 2012 were abstracted and tabulated by sex, tumor type and other characteristics. Results: A total of 448 EC patients visited NCI-UG in 1999-2012, and the annual number of EC cases increased steadily from 1999. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the predominant EC tumor type (90%), and adenocarcinoma (ADC) was reported in 9.4% of the EC cases. The overall male-to-female ratio for EC was 1:1.8, but the ratio was tumor type-dependent, being 1:2 for SCC and 2:1 for ADC. Only 20% of EC patients reported having ever used tobacco and/or alcohol, and the vast majority of these patients were male. At the time of EC diagnosis, 47.3% of the patients resided in Gezira State. Some EC patients from Gezira State seek out-of-state treatment in the national capital of Khartoum instead of visiting NCI-UG. Conclusions: The annual number of EC patients visiting NCI-UG has increased in recent years, approximately half of these patients being from Gezira State. Although this consecutive series of EC patients who visited NCI-UG was complete, it did not capture all EC patients from the state. A populationbased cancer registry would provide more complete data required to better understand EC patterns and risk factors.
Esophageal cancer;case series;hospital-based;Gezira State;Sudan
- Abdelgadir MA, Khalid AR, Ashmaig AL, et al (2012). Epidemiology of anaemia among pregnant women in Geizera, central Sudan. J Obstet Gynaecol, 32, 42-4. https://doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2011.617849
- Abedi-Ardekani B, Kamangar F, Hewitt SM, et al (2010). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in oesophageal tissue and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in north-eastern Iran. Gut, 59, 1178-83. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2010.210609
- Abu-Sin AY, Ahmed MA (1978). Pernicious anaemia in Sudanese patients. East Afr Med J, 55, 568-71.
- Afridi P, Khan A, Waheed I (2000). High risk factors in patients with carcinoma esophagus. JCPSP, 10, 368-70.
- Ahmed HG (2013a). Aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. J Oral Maxillofac Res, 4, 3.
- Ahmed HG (2013b). Survey on knowledge and attitudes related to the relation between tobacco, alcohol abuse and cancer in the northern state of Sudan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 2483-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.4.2483
- Ahmed ME (1993). The surgical management and outcome of oesophageal cancer in Khartoum. J R Coll Surg Edinb, 38, 16-8.
- Al-Samawi AS, Aulaqi SM (2014). Esophageal cancer in Yemen. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 24, 182-5.
- Ali AA, Rayis DA, Abdallah TM, et al (2011). Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. BMC Res Notes, 4, 311. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-311
- Babekir AR, el Fahal AH, Alla AH (1989). Oesophageal cancer in Sudan. Trop Doct, 19, 33-4.
- Bane A, Ashenafi S, Kassa E (2009). Pattern of upper gastrointestinal tumors at Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a ten-year review. Ethiop Med J, 47, 33-8.
- Boeing H, Dietrich T, Hoffmann K, et al (2006). Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract: the prospective EPIC-study. Cancer Causes Control, 17, 957-69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-006-0036-4
- Boulos PB, El Masri SH (1977). Carcinoma of the oesophagus in the Sudan. Trop Geogr Med, 29, 150-4.
- Bray F, Ren JS, Masuyer E, et al (2013). Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. Int J Cancer, 132, 1133-45. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27711
- Cook P (1971). Cancer of the oesophagus in Africa. a summary and evaluation of the evidence for the frequency of occurrence, and a preliminary indication of the possible association with the consumption of alcoholic drinks made from maize. Br J Cancer, 25, 853-80. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1971.99
- Dawsey SP, Tonui S, Parker RK, et al (2010). Esophageal cancer in young people: a case series of 109 cases and review of the literature. PLoS One, 5, 14080. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014080
- Elamin A, Ibrahim ME, Abuidris D, et al (2015). Part I: cancer in Sudan-burden, distribution, and trends breast, gynecological, and prostate cancers. Cancer Med, 4, 447-56. https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.378
- Elbushra HE, Eltom AR (1988). Severity of protein-energy malnutrition in eastern Sudan. Ann Trop Paediatr, 8, 244-9.
- Grandesso F, Sanderson F, Kruijt J, et al (2005). Mortality and malnutrition among populations living in South Darfur, Sudan: results of 3 surveys, September 2004. JAMA, 293, 1490-4. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.12.1490
- Hendricks D, Parker MI (2002). Oesophageal cancer in Africa. IUBMB Life, 53, 263-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/15216540212643
- Hsing AW, Hansson LE, McLaughlin JK, et al (1993). Pernicious anemia and subsequent cancer. A population-based cohort study. Cancer, 71, 745-50. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19930201)71:3<745::AID-CNCR2820710316>3.0.CO;2-1
- IARC (2010). Monograph on some non-heterocyclic aromatic Carcin Risks Hum, 92, 1-538.
- IARC (2012). Personal habits and indoor combustions. Volume 100 E. A review of human carcinogens. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum, 100, 1-538.
- Idris AM, Ibrahim YE, Warnakulasuriya KA, et al (1998). Toombak use and cigarette smoking in the Sudan: estimates of prevalence in the Nile state. Prev Med, 27, 597-603. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1998.0331
- Idris AM, Prokopczyk B, Hoffmann D (1994). Toombak: a major risk factor for cancer of the oral cavity in Sudan. Prev Med, 23, 832-9. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1141
- Islami F, Boffetta P, Ren JS, et al (2009). High-temperature beverages and foods and esophageal cancer risk--a systematic review. Int J Cancer, 125, 491-524. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24445
- Jacobson F (1998). Theories of sickness and misfortune among the hadandowa beja: narratives as points of entry into beja cultural knowledge. RICAN PAUL international London and New York, Routledge.
- Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107
- Kamangar F, Chow WH, Abnet CC, et al (2009). Environmental causes of esophageal cancer. Gastroenterol Clin North Am, 38, 27-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gtc.2009.01.004
- Keeney S, Bauer TL (2006). Epidemiology of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. Surg Oncol Clin N Am, 15, 687-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soc.2006.07.014
- Mahgoub HM, Adam I (2012). Morbidity and mortality of severe malnutrition among Sudanese children in New Halfa Hospital, Eastern Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 106, 66-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2011.09.003
- Mao WM, Zheng WH, Ling ZQ (2011). Epidemiologic risk factors for esophageal cancer development. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 2461-6.
- Marjani HA, Biramijamal F, Hossein-Nezhad A, et al (2010). Prevalence of esophageal cancer risk factors among Turkmen and non-Turkmen ethnic groups in a high incidence area in Iran. Arch Iran Med, 13, 111-5.
- McHembe MD, Rambau PF, Chalya PL, et al (2013). Endoscopic and clinicopathological patterns of esophageal cancer in Tanzania: experiences from two tertiary health institutions. World J Surg Oncol, 11, 257. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-11-257
- Meena PD, Kaushik P, Shukla S, et al (2006). Anticancer and antimutagenic properties of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7, 627-32.
- Mohammed ME, Abuidris DO, Elgaili EM, et al (2012). Predominance of females with oesophageal cancer in Gezira, central Sudan. Arab J Gastroenterol, 13, 174-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2012.06.012
- Mudawi HM, Mahmoud AO, El Tahir MA, et al (2010). Use of endoscopy in diagnosis and management of patients with dysphagia in an African setting. Dis Esophagus, 23, 196-200. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2050.2009.01022.x
- Parker RK, Dawsey SM, Abnet CC, et al (2010). Frequent occurrence of esophageal cancer in young people in western Kenya. Dis Esophagus, 23, 128-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2050.2009.00977.x
- Rustgi AK, El-Serag HB (2014). Esophageal carcinoma. N Engl J Med, 371, 2499-509. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1314530
- Salem MM, Davidorf FH, Abdel-Rahman MH (2011). In vitro anti-uveal melanoma activity of phenolic compounds from the Egyptian medicinal plant Acacia nilotica. Fitoterapia, 82, 1279-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2011.08.020
- Sapkota A, Hsu CC, Zaridze D, et al (2008). Dietary risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract in central and eastern Europe. Cancer Causes Control, 19, 1161-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-008-9183-0
- Secretan B, Straif K, Baan R, et al (2009). A review of human carcinogens-Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, Lancet Oncol, 10, 1033-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70326-2
- Tavani A, Bertuzzi M, Talamini R, et al (2003). Coffee and tea intake and risk of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancer. Oral Oncol, 39, 695-700. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1368-8375(03)00081-2
- Tettey M, Edwin F, Aniteye E, et al (2012). The changing epidemiology of esophageal cancer in sub-Saharan Africathe case of Ghana. Pan Afr Med J, 13, 6.
- Turati F, Galeone C, La Vecchia C, et al (2011). Coffee and cancers of the upper digestive and respiratory tracts: metaanalyses of observational studies. Ann Oncol, 22, 536-44. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdq603
- Tverdal A, Hjellvik V, Selmer R (2011). Coffee intake and oraloesophageal cancer: follow-up of 389,624 Norwegian men and women 40-45 years. Br J Cancer, 105, 157-61. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2011.192
- Wakhisi J, Patel K, Buziba N, et al (2005). Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of Western Kenya. Afr Health Sci, 5, 157-63.
- Wheeler JB, Reed CE (2012). Epidemiology of esophageal cancer. Surg Clin North Am, 92, 1077-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.suc.2012.07.008
- Ye W, Nyren O (2003). Risk of cancers of the oesophagus and stomach by histology or subsite in patients hospitalised for pernicious anaemia. Gut, 52, 938-41. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.52.7.938
- Yu X, Bao Z, Zou J, et al (2011). Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMC Cancer, 11, 96. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-96