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Decitabine in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Which Combined with Complex Karyotype Respectively

Gao, Su;Li, Zheng;Fu, Jian-Hong;Hu, Xiao-Hui;Xu, Yang;Jin, Zheng-Ming;Tang, Xiao-Wen;Han, Yue;Chen, Su-Ning;Sun, Ai-Ning;Wu, De-Pei;Qiu, Hui-Ying

  • Published : 2015.10.06

Abstract

Background: We conducted a study exploring the clinical safety and efficacy of decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), combined with a complex karyotype. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to September 2013, a total of 35 patients with AML/MDS combined with a complex karyotype diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included for retrospective analysis. All patients were treated with decitabine alone ($20mg/m^2$ daily for 5 days) or combination AAG chemotherapy (Acla 20mg qod*4d, Ara-C $10mg/m^2$ q12h*7d, G-CSF $300{\mu}g$ qd, the dose of G-CSF adjusted to the amount in blood routinely). Results: In 35 patients, 15 exhibited a complete response (CR), and 6 a partial response (PR), the overall response rate (CR+PR) being 60% (21 of 35). Median disease-free survival was 18 months and overall survival was 14 months. In the 15 MDS patients with a complex karyotype, the CR rate was 53.3% (8 of 15); in 20 AML patients with complex karyotype, the overall response rate was 65% (13 of 20). The response rate of decitabine alone (22 cases) was 56.5% (13 of 22), while in the combination chemotherapy group (13 cases), the effective rate was 61.5% (8 of 13)(P>0.05). There are 15 patients with chromosome 7 aberration, after treatment with decitabine, 7 CR, 3 PR, overall response rate was 66.7% (10 of 15). Of 18 patients with 3 to 5 kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, 66.7% demonstrated a response; of 17 with more than 5 chromosomal abnormalities, 52.9% had a response. In the total of 35 patients, with one course (23 patients) and ${\geq}$two courses (12 patients), the overall response rate was 40.9% and 92.3% (P<0.05). Grade III to IV hematological toxicity was observed in 27 cases (75%). Grade III to IV infections were clinically documented in 7 (20%). Grades I to II non-hematological toxicity were infections (18 patients), haematuria (2 patients), and bleeding (3 patients). With follow-up until September 2013, 7 patients were surviving, 18 had died and 10 were lost to follow-up. In the 6 cases who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) all were still relapse-free survivors. Conclusions: Decitabine alone or combination with AAG can improve outcome of AML/MDS with a complex karyotype, there being no significant difference decitabine in inducing remission rates in patients with different karyotype. Increasing the number of courses can improve efficiency. This approach with fewer treatment side effects in patients with a better tolerance should be employed in order to create an improved subsequent chance for HSCT.

Keywords

Decitabine;complex karyotype;myelodysplastic syndrome;acute myeloid leukemia

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  2. Adult Primary Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Experience from a Tertiary Care Center in Pakistan vol.17, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.3.1535
  3. mutations predict decitabine-induced complete responses in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes vol.176, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14455
  4. Decitabine priming prior to low-dose chemotherapy improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes-RAEB: a retrospective analysis vs. chemotherapy alone vol.143, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-016-2331-0

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Natural Scientific Foundation