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Gold Nanoparticles Enhance the Anticancer Activity of Gallic Acid against Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines

  • Rattanata, Narintorn ;
  • Daduang, Sakda ;
  • Wongwattanakul, Molin ;
  • Leelayuwat, Chanvit ;
  • Limpaiboon, Temduang ;
  • Lekphrom, Ratsami ;
  • Sandee, Alisa ;
  • Boonsiri, Patcharee ;
  • Chio-Srichan, Sirinart ;
  • Daduang, Jureerut
  • Published : 2015.11.04

Abstract

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were conjugated with gallic acid (GA) at various concentrations between 30 and $150{\mu}M$ and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The anticancer activities of the gallic acid-stabilized gold nanoparticles against well-differentiated (M213) and moderately differentiated (M214) adenocarcinomas were then determined using a neutral red assay. The GA mechanism of action was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. Distinctive features of the FTIR spectra between the control and GA-treated cells were confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). The surface plasmon resonance spectra of the GNPs had a maximum absorption at 520 nm, whereas GNPs-GA shifted the maximum absorption values. In an in vitro study, the complexed GNPs-GA had an increased ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that was statistically significant (P<0.0001) in both M213 and M214 cells compared to GA alone, indicating that the anticancer activity of GA can be improved by conjugation with GNPs. Moreover, PCA revealed that exposure of the tested cells to GA resulted in significant changes in their cell membrane lipids and fatty acids, which may enhance the efficacy of this anticancer activity regarding apoptosis pathways.

Keywords

Gallic acid;gold nanoparticle;anticancer activity;cholangiocarcinoma;nanomedicine

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