The Analysis of Learner's Motivation and Satisfaction with 3D Printing in Science Classroom

3D 프린팅을 활용한 과학 수업에서 학습자의 동기와 만족감 분석

  • 변문경 (성균관대학교 교육학과) ;
  • 조준호 (성균관대학교 교육학과) ;
  • 조문흠 (성균관대학교 교육학과)
  • Received : 2015.09.30
  • Accepted : 2015.10.26
  • Published : 2015.10.31


Technology is an important means to enhance students' understanding about scientific concepts. In particular, newly introduced 3D printing technology has great potential to help students learn scientific concepts better. 3D printing is a process for a creating physical object with a three dimensional model. In this study, we explored two types of learners' (students vs. adults) motivation and satisfaction with 3D printing technology. With regard to motivation, student learners showed higher task value, self-efficacy for learning, and satisfaction than adult learners. The result implied that 3D printing technology is more effective to student learners than adult learners. In addition, for adult learner group, negative relationship between technology and satisfaction was found. Therefore, support for reducing the technology anxiety for adult learners is necessary. Further discussions are provided for the research and application of 3D printing technology in science classroom.


  1. Cho, S., Moon, M. (2007) The study of adult learners academic achievement related variables, Korean journal of educational research, 45(2), 21-149.
  2. Duncan, T. G., McKeachie, W. J. (2005) The Making of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, Educationnal Psychologist, 40(2), 117-128.
  3. Eigenberg, M. (2013) 3D printing for children: What to build next?, International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction 1, pp. 7-13.
  4. Artino, A. R. (2009) Online learning: Are subjective perceptions of instructional context related to academic success? The Internet and Higher Education, 12(3-4), 117-125.
  5. Berman, B. (2012) 3-D printing: The new industrial revolution, Business Horizons, 55, pp. 155-162.
  6. Groenendyk, M. Gallant, R. (2013) 3D printing and scanning at the Dalhousie University Libraries: a pilot project, Library Hi Tech, 31(1), 34-41.
  7. Hart, B. (2012, June 3) Will 3d printing change the world. The forbes. Retrieved from
  8. Hatch, J. (2002) Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings. Seoul: Hakjisa.
  9. Hannafin, M. J., Land, S. M., & Oliver, K. (1999). Open learning environments: Foundations, methods, and models. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory, 115-140. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  10. Birtchnell, T., Urry, J. (2013) 3D, SF and the future, Futures(The journal of policy, planning and futures studies), Futures 50 (2013), 25-34.
  11. Chi, T. H. (2009) Active-Constructive-Interactive: A Conceptual Framework for Differentiating Learning Activities, Topics in Cognitive Science 1, 73-105.
  12. Her, H., Lim, G., Seo, J. (2011) 21st century learner and teacher's competence modeling, Korea education and research information service.
  13. Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing Constructivist Learning Environments. In C. M. Reigeluth(Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory, 215-239, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  14. Jung, H., Kuan, S., Lee, S. (2013) Study on the Current Status of Board Game Using 3D Printing and its Service Model, Korean Society For Computer Game, 27(1), 103-109.
  15. Jung, J, Lee, T. (2014) Development of Students with Mild Disabilities Smart Devices use Education Programs for Expansion of Learning Ability in the 21st Century, 2014 The Korean Association of Computer Education winter conference, 18(1)
  16. Kim, H. (2015) Technology in Educational Technology: Exploration of meaning and analysis of trends in research of educational technology in Korea, Journal of Educational Technology, 31(2), 287-310.
  17. Kim, M., Kim, B. (2014) Studies on 3D printer in the Country and Foreign Countries - Focus on Design Educational Program, Korea Digital Design Council conference, 2014(5), 239-240.
  18. Kim, N., Kim, M,. Chea, B., Park, J., Lee, S. (2014) The Current State of 3D Printer and It's Application Plan, Journal of Manufacturing Engineening & Technology, 2014(4), 277-277.
  19. Kim, S., & Lim, J. (2015) Teachers' perception on the characteristics of Smart devices, The Korean Association of Computer Education conference, 19(1), 67-72.
  20. Kim, T., Kim, J., Yun, J., Kim, J., Cho, G., Kim, S. (2015a) Popular 3D Printer, The Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, 2015 spring conference, 171.
  21. Kroll, E., Artzi, D. (2011) Enhancing aerospace engineering students' learning with 3D printing wind-tunnel models, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 17(5), 393-402.
  22. Lee, J., Lim, Y., Park, K., Lee, S. (2014) Development of Mathematics 3D-Printing Tools with Sage -For College Education-, Communications of mathematical education, 28(3), 353-366.
  23. Lee, S., Lee, J., Park, K., Lee, J., An, S. (2015) Mathematics, Art and 3D-Printing in STEAM Education, Communications of Mathematical Education, 29(1), 35-49.
  24. Ministry of Education (2014, September, 24) 2014 revised curriculum content. Retrieved from
  25. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2014) Endless imagining room operations manual. Retrieved from uid=4277&mod=document
  26. Oh, S. Y. (2015, June 14) The future is times of convergence talent... STEAM.SW Education is core. The Chosun Newspaper. Retrieved from
  27. Park, G. (2014) Applications of 3D Printing Technology Education, Journal of Mechanical Science, 54(4), 41-45.
  28. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. (1993) Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ), Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801-813. doi:10.1177/0013164493053003024.
  29. Root-Bernstein, M. (2001) Sparks of Genius: The Thirteen Thinking Tools of the World's Most Creative People, United States : Mariner Books
  30. Trilling, B., Fadel, C. (2012) 21st century skills: Core skills that are requirements, Seoul: Hakjisa.