- Volume 21 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Advances in the design of high-rise structures by the wind tunnel procedure: Conceptual framework
- Simiu, Emil (Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology) ;
- Yeo, DongHun (Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology)
- Received : 2015.01.28
- Accepted : 2015.07.19
- Published : 2015.11.25
This paper surveys and complements contributions by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to techniques ensuring that the wind tunnel procedure for the design of high-rise structures is based on sound methods and allows unambiguous inter-laboratory comparisons. Developments that enabled substantial advances in these techniques include: Instrumentation for simultaneously measuring pressures at multiple taps; time-domain analysis methods for estimating directional dynamic effects; creation of large simulated extreme directional wind speed data sets; non-parametric methods for estimating mean recurrence intervals (MRIs) of Demand-to-Capacity Indexes (DCIs); and member sizing based on peak DCIs with specified MRIs. To implement these advances changes are needed in the traditional division of tasks between wind and structural engineers. Wind engineers should provide large sets of directional wind speeds, pressure coefficient time series, and estimates of uncertainties in wind speeds and pressure coefficients. Structural engineers should perform the dynamic analyses, estimates of MRIs of wind effects, sensitivity studies, and iterative sizing of structural members. The procedure is transparent, eliminates guesswork inherent in frequency domain methods and due to the lack of pressure measurements, and enables structural engineers to be in full control of the structural design for wind.
aerodynamics;design;high-rise buildings;micrometeorology;structural dynamics;structural engineering;wind climate;wind engineering;wind tunnel procedure;wind tunnel testing
- Lombardo, F., Main, J. and Simiu, E. (2009), "Automated extraction and classification of thunderstorm and non-thunderstorm wind data for extreme-value analysis", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 120-131.
- Peterka, J. and Esterday, W. (2005), "Discussion of "Wind Speeds in ASCE 7 Standard Peak-Gust Map: Assessment by Emil Simiu, Roseanne Wilcox, Fahim Sadek, and James J. Filliben", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 6, 994-996.
- Pintar, A.L. and Lombardo, F.T. (2013), Mapping Return Values of Extreme Wind Speeds, Risk Assessment and Evaluation of Predictions, 383-404. Springer, New York.
- Simiu, E. (2011), Design of buildings for wind, 2nd Ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
- Simiu, E., Gabbai, R.D. and Fritz, W.P. (2008), "Wind-induced tall building response: a time-domain approach", Wind Struct., 11(6), 427-440. https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2008.11.6.427
- Simiu, E., Wilcox, R., Sadek, F. and Filliben, J. (2003), "Wind Speeds in ASCE 7 Standard Peak-Gust Map: assessment", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 129, 427-439. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2003)129:4(427)
- Simiu, E., Wilcox, R., Sadek, F. and Filliben, J. (2005), "Closure to "Wind Speeds in ASCE 7 Standard Peak-Gust Map: Assessment", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 131, 997-998. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:6(997)
- Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill LLP (SOM). (2004), "WTC wind load estimates, outside experts for baseline structural performance, Appendix D", NIST NCSTAR1-2, Baseline structural performance and aircraft impact damage analysis of the World Trade Center towers, submitted by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP, Chicago, (wtc.nist.gov) , May 2010; also in Simiu E. (2011) (Appendix 5).
- Spence, S.M.J. (2009), High-rise database-assisted design 1.1 (HR_DAD_1.1): Concepts, software, and examples, NIST Building Science Series 181, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
- Yeo, D. (2010), Database-Assisted Design of high-rise reinforced concrete structures for wind: Concepts, software, and application, NIST Technical Note 1665, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
- ASCE 7-10 (2010), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston.
- ASCE 49-12 (2012), Wind Tunnel for Buildings and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston.
- Davenport, A.G. (1982), The Interaction of Wind and Structures, Engineering Meteorology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 557-572.
- Gabbai, R. and Simiu, E. (2014), "Evaluation of mean recurrence intervals of wind effects for tall building design", J. Struct. Eng. - ASCE, 140, 04013037. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000818
- Griffis, L. (2006), Wind Tunnel Testing Moving Forward, Structure, March, 7.
- Irwin, P.A., Denoon, R. and Scott, D. (2013), Wind-Tunnel Testing of High-Rise Buildings, Routledge, New York.