A Low-Energy Ultra-Wideband Internet-of-Things Radio System for Multi-Standard Smart-Home Energy Management

  • Khajenasiri, Iman ;
  • Zhu, Peng ;
  • Verhelst, Marian ;
  • Gielen, Georges
  • Received : 2015.09.20
  • Accepted : 2015.10.25
  • Published : 2015.10.31


This work presents an Internet of Things (IoT) system for home energy management based on a custom-designed Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) transceiver that targets a generic and multi-standard control system. This control system enables the interoperability of heterogeneous devices: it integrates various sensor nodes based on ZigBee, EnOcean and UWB in the same middleware by utilizing an ad-hoc layer as an interface between the hardware and software. The paper presents as a first the design of the IR-UWB transceiver for a portable sensor node integrated with the middleware layer, and also describes the receiver connected to the control system. The custom-designed low-power transmitter on the sensor node is fabricated with 130 nm CMOS technology. It generates a signal with a 1.1 ns pulse width while consuming $39{\mu}W$ at 1 Mbps. The UWB sensor node with a temperature measurement capability consumes 5.31 mW, which is lower than the power level of state-of-the-art solutions for smart-home applications. The UWB hardware and software layers necessary to interface with the control system are verified in over-the-air measurements in an actual office environment. With the implementation of the presented sensor node and its integration in the energy management system, we demonstrate achievement of the broad flexibility demanded for IoT.


Internet of things (IoT);Home energy management system (HEMS);Wireless sensor networks (WSNs);Ultra-wideband (UWB);Interoperability;WebServices


  1. D. Munjin and J. Morin, "Toward Internet of Things Application Markets," in IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, Nov 2012, pp. 156-162.
  2. Jiong Jin, J. Gubbi, S. Marusic, and M. Palaniswami, "An Information Framework for Creating a Smart City Through Internet of Things," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 112-121, April 2014.
  3. Ye Tian, K. Xu, and N. Ansari, "TCP in Wireless Environments: Problems and Solutions," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. S27-S32, March 2005.
  4. Xi Chen, Limin Sun, Hongsong Zhu, Yan Zhen, and Hongbin Chen, "Application of Internet of Things in Power-Line Monitoring," in International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery, pp. 423-426. Oct 2012.
  5. A. Zanella, N. Bui, A. Castellani, L. Vangelista, and M. Zorzi, "Internet of Things for Smart Cities," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22-32, Feb 2014.
  6. Xiaohui Liang, Xu Li, Rongxing Lu, Xiaodong Lin, and Xuemin Shen, "Enabling Pervasive Healthcare with Privacy Preservation in Smart Community," in IEEE International Conference on Communications, June 2012, pp. 3451-3455.
  7. Xu Li, Rongxing Lu, Xiaohui Liang, Xuemin Shen, Jiming Chen, and Xiaodong Lin, "Smart Community: An Internet of Things Application," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 68-75, November 2011.
  8. Yi-Chang Li, Seung Ho Hong, Xiao Hui Li, Yu Chul Kim, and M. Alam,"Implementation of a BACnet-EnOcean Gateway in Buildings," in International Conference on Intelligent Green Building and Smart Grid, April 2014, pp. 1-7.
  9. Dae-Man Han and Jae-Hyun Lim, "Smart Home Energy Management System using IEEE 802.15.4 and Zigbee," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1403-1410, Aug 2010.
  10. Jinsoo Han, Chang sic Choi, Wan-Ki Park, Ilwoo Lee, and Sang-Ha Kim, "Smart Home Energy Management System Including Renewable Energy Based on Zigbee and PLC," in IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Jan 2014, pp. 544-545.
  11. Peng Han, Jinkuan Wang, Yinghua Han, and Qiang Zhao, "Novel WSN-based Residential Energy Management Scheme in Smart Grid," in International Conference on Information Science and Technology, March 2012, pp. 393-396.
  12. J. Marche, K. Cheney, S. Christian, and K. Roth, "Home Energy Management Products and Trends," Fraunhofer CSE, 2011.
  13. A.M. Ullah, M.R. Islam, S.F. Aktar, and S.K.A. Hossain "Remote-Touch: Augmented Reality based Marker Tracking for Smart Home Control," in International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, Dec 2012, pp. 473-477.
  14. M. Eisenhauer, P. Rosengren, and P. Antolin, "A Development Platform for Integrating Wireless Devices and Sensors into Ambient Intelligence Systems," in IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops, June 2009, pp. 1-3.
  15. E. Patti, A. Acquaviva, M. Jahn, F. Pramudianto, R. Tomasi, D. Rabourdin, J. Virgone, and E. Macii, "Event-Driven User-Centric Middleware for Energy-Efficient Buildings and Public Spaces," IEEE Systems Journal, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1-10, 2014.
  16. "Energyhub Solution,"
  17. Nilanjan Banerjee, Sami Rollins, and Kevin Moran, "Automating Energy Management in Green Homes," in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Home Networks, New York, NY, USA, 2011, HomeNets '11, pp. 19-24, ACM.
  18. J.A. Rodriguez-Mondejar, R. Santodomingo, and C. Brown, "The ADDRESS Energy Box: Design and Implementation," in IEEE Inter- national Energy Conference and Exhibition, Sept 2012, pp. 629-634.
  19. Younghun Kim, Thomas Schmid, Zainul M. Charbiwala, and Mani B. Srivastava, "Viridiscope: Design and Implementation of a Fine Grained Power Monitoring System for Homes," in Proc. Ubicomp, 2009.
  20. S. Karnouskos, "Crowdsourcing Information via Mobile Devices as a Migration Enabler Towards the Smartgrid," in IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, Oct 2011, pp. 67-72.
  21. "Savant Luxury Home Automation,"
  22. Guang-Hua Yang and V.O.K. Li, "Energy Management System and Pervasive Service-Oriented Networks," in IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, Oct 2010, pp. 1-6.
  23. "Visible Energy Solution,"
  24. Ecobee Home Automation,"
  25. A.T. Gambutan and M. Popa, "Smart Homes. A Solution for a Smart Lighting System," in International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics, May 2009, pp. 205-210.
  26. F. Viani, F. Robol, A. Polo, P. Rocca, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "Wireless Architectures for Heterogeneous Sensing in Smart Home Applications: Concepts and Real Implementation," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 101, no. 11, pp. 2381-2396, Nov 2013.
  27. I. Khajenasiri, E. Patti, M. Jahn, A. Acquaviva, M. Verhelst, E. Macii, and G. Gielen, "Design and Implementation of a Multi-Standard Event- Driven Energy Management System for Smart Buildings," in IEEE Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, Oct 2014, pp. 20-21.
  28. M. Verhelst and W. Dehaene, Energy Scalable Radio Design for Pulse UWB Communication and Ranging, Springer, 2008.
  29. Domenico Porcino and W. Hirt, "Ultra-Wide-Band Radio Technology: Potential and Challenges Ahead," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 66-74, July 2003.
  30. Haolu Xie, A. Wang, Albert Wang, Bo Qin, Hongyi Chen, Yumei Zhou, and Bin Zhao, "A Varying Pulse Width Second Order Derivative Gaussian Pulse Generator for UWB Transceivers in CMOS," in International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, May 2007, pp. 2794-2797.
  31. Hyunseok Kim and Youngjoong Joo, "Fifthderivative Gaussian Pulse Generator for UWB System," in IEEE Radio Frequency integrated Circuits Symposium, June 2005, pp. 671-674.
  32. Rui Xu; Yalin Jin; Cam Nguyen, "Power-efficient switching-based CMOS UWB transmitters for UWB communications and Radar systems," in Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on , vol.54, no.8, pp.3271-3277, Aug. 2006.
  33. Shamsa, Y.; Serdijn, W. A., "A 21pJ/pulse FCC compliant UWB pulse generator," in Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.497-500, 2010.
  34. Ming Shen; Ying-Zheng Yin; Hao Jiang; Tong Tian; Mikkelsen, J.H., "A 3-10 GHz IR-UWB CMOS Pulse Generator With 6 mW Peak Power Dissipation Using A Slow-Charge Fast-Discharge Technique," in Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE , vol.24, no.9, pp.634-636, Sept. 2014.
  35. "EnOcean, STM110, STM300 datasheets,"
  36. Y. Agarwal, B. Balaji, S. Dutta, R.K. Gupta, and T. Weng, "Duty- Cycling Buildings Aggressively: The next frontier in HVAC Control," in International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, April 2011, pp.246-257.
  37. A. Somov, I. Minakov, A. Simalatsar, G. Fontana, and R. Passerone, "A Methodology for Power Consumption Evaluation of Wireless Sensor networks," in IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies Factory Automation, Sept 2009, pp. 1-8.
  38. Shengxi Diao; Z. Yuanjin; H. Chun-Huat, "A CMOS Ultra Low-Power and Highly Efficient UWB-IR Transmitter for WPAN Applications," in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, vol.56, no.3, March 2009, pp.200-204.