- Volume 19 Issue 5
Since the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between concrete and GFRP, steel and GFRP are quite different, GFRP laminates with different laminas stacking-sequence present different thermal behavior and currently there is no specification on mechanical properties of GFRP laminates, it is necessary to investigate the thermal influence on composite girder with stay-in-place (SIP) bridge deck at different levels and on different scales. This paper experimentally and theoretically investigated the CTE of GFRP at lamina's and laminate's level on micro-mechanics scales. The theoretical CTE values of laminas and laminates agreed well with test results, indicating that designers could obtain thermal properties of GFRP laminates with different lamina stacking-sequence through micro-mechanics methods. On the basis of the CTE tests and theoretical analysis, the thermal behaviors of composite girder with hybrid GFRP-concrete deck were studied numerically and theoretically on macro-mechanics scales. The theoretical results of concrete and steel components of composite girder agreed well with FE results, but the theoretical results of GFRP profiles were slightly larger than FE and tended to be conservative at a safety level.
composite girder;hybrid GFRP-concrete deck;lamina and laminate's level;coefficients of thermal expansion;thermal multi-scale analysis
- Bank, L.C., Oliva, M.G., Russell, J.S., Jacobson, D.A., Conachen, M., Nelson, B. and McMonigal, D. (2006), "Double-layer prefabricated FRP grids for rapid bridge deck construction: Case study", J. Compos. Construct., 10(3), 204-212. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2006)10:3(204)
- ANSYS (2005), Release 11.0; ANSYS University Advanced, ANSYS Inc.
- Bakis, C.E., Bank, L.C., Brown, V.L., Cosenza, E., Davalos, J.F., Lesko, J.J., Machida, A., Rizkalla, S.H. and Triantafillou, T.C. (2002), "Fiber-reinforced polymer composites for concstruction - state-of-artreview", J. Compos. Construct., 6(2), 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2002)6:2(73)
- Bank, L.C., Malla, A.P., Oliva, M.G., Russell, J.S., Bentur, A. and Shapira, A. (2009), "A model specification for fiber reinforced non-participating permanent formwork panels for concrete bridge deck construction", Construct. Build. Mater., 23(7), 2664-2677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.01.004
- Berg, A.C., Bank, L.C., Oliva, M.G. and Russell, J.S. (2006), "Construction and cost analysis of an FRP reinforced concrete bridge deck", Construct. Build Mater., 20(8), 515-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.02.007
- Dieter, D.A., Dietsche, J.S., Bank, L.C., Oliva, M.G. and Russell, J.S. (2002), "Concrete bridge decks constructed with fiber-reinforced polymer stay-in-place forms and grid reinforcing", Transport. Res. Rec., 1814, 183-189.
- Fam, A. and Nelson, M. (2011), "New bridge deck cast onto corrugated GFRP stay-in-place structural forms with interlocking connections", J. Compos. Construct., 16(1), 110-117.
- Hanus. J.P., Bank. L.C. and Oliva, M.G. (2008), "Combined loading of a bridge deck reinforced with a structural FRP stay-in-place form", Constcut. Build Mater., 23(4), 605-1619.
- He, J., Liu, Y.Q., Chen, A.R. and Dai, L. (2012a), "Experimental investigation of movable hybrid GFRP and concrete bridge deck", Construct. Build Mater., 26(1), 49-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.05.002
- He, Y.X., Zhang, L., Zhu, S.B., Yao, D.H., Zhang, Z.Q. and Zhang, Y.Q. (2012b), "Effect of core-shell polymer particles on the coefficient of thermal expansion epoxy resin", Thermosetting Resin, 27(1), 5-8. [In Chinese]
- Jones, R.M. (1998), Mechanics of Composite Materials, Taylor & Francis Inc., Oxfordshire, UK.
- Keller, T., Schaumann, E. and Vallee, T. (2007), "Flexural behavior of a hybrid FRP and lightweight concrete sandwich bridge deck", Compos. Part A-APPL. S, 38(3), 879-889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2006.07.007
- Kitane, Y., Aref, A.J. and Lee, G.C. (2004), "Static and fatigue testing of hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer-concrete bridge superstructure", J. Compos. Construct., 8(2), 182-190. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2004)8:2(182)
- Kong, B., Cai, C.S. and Kong, X. (2013), "Thermal behaviors of concrete and steel bridges after slab replacements with GFRP honeycomb sandwich panels", Eng. Struct., 56, 2041-2051. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.08.024
- Kong, B., Cai, C.S. and Pan, F. (2014a), "Thermal field distributions of girder bridges with GFRP panel deck versus concrete deck", J. Bridge Eng., 19(11), 04014046. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0000617
- Kong, B., Cai, C.S. and Kong, X. (2014b), "Thermal property analysis and applications of GFRP panels to integral abutment bridges", Eng. Struct., 76, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.06.009
- Lin, Z.F., Liu, Y.Q. and He, J. (2014), "Behavior of stud connectors under combined shear and tension loads", Eng. Struct., 81, 362-376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.016
- Matta, F., Nanni, A. and Bank, L.C. (2007), "Prefabricated FRP reinforcement for concrete bridge deck and railing: Design, laboratory validation and field implementation", Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Conference on FRP in Structures (APFIS2007), Hong Kong, December.
- Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China (MTPRC JTC D62) (2004), Code for design of highway reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete bridges and culverts; Beijing, China. [In Chinese]
- Nelson, M. and Fam, A. (2006), "Full bridge testing at scale constructed with novel FRP stay-in-place structural forms for concrete deck", Construct. Build Mater., 50, 368-376.
- Nelson, M., Eldridge, A. and Fam, A. (2013), "The effects of splices and bond on performance of bridge deck with FRP stay-in-place forms at various boundary conditions", Construct. Build Mater., 56, 509-516.
- Ouyang, G.N., Xu, L., Liu, C.M. and Xu, J. (1988), "Experimental study on the coefficient of thermal expansion for several fibers", Aerosp. Mater. Technol., 04, 48-53. [In Chinese]
- Reising, R.M., Shahrooz, B.M., Hunt, V.J., Neumann, A.R. and Helmicki, A.J. (2004), "Performance comparison of four fiber-reinforced polymer deck panels", J. Compos. Construct., 8(3), 265-274. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2004)8:3(265)
- Ringelstetter, T.E., Bank, L.C., Oliva, M.G., Russell, J.S., Matta, F. and Nanni, A. (2006), "Structural stay-in-place formwork system of fiber - Reinforced polymer for accelerated and durable bridge deck construction", Transport. Res. Rec., 1976, 219-226.
- Schapery, R.A. (1968), "Thermal expansion coefficients of composite materials based on energy principles", J. Compos. Mater., 2(3), 380-404. https://doi.org/10.1177/002199836800200308
- Schaumann, E., Vallee, T. and Keller, T. (2008), "Direct load transmission in hybrid FRP and lightweight concrete sandwich bridge deck", Compos. Part A-APPL. S, 39(3), 478-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2007.12.004
- Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAPRC GB/T2577-2005) (2005), Test method for resin content of glass fiber reinforced plastics; SAPRC, Beijing, China. [In Chinese]
- Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAPRC GB/T2572-2005) (2005), Fiber-reinforced plastics composites - Determination for mean coefficient of linear expansion; SAPRC, Beijing, China. [In Chinese]
- Soden, P.D., Hinton, M.J. and Kaddour, A.S (1998), "Lamina properties, lay-up configurations and loading conditions for a range of fibre-reinforced composite laminates", Compos. Sci. Technol., 58(7), 1011-1022. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-3538(98)00078-5
- Vinson, J.R. (1999), The Behavior of Sandwich Structures of Isotropic and Composite Materials, Technomic Publishing Co., PA, USA.
- Xin, H.H. and Liu, Y.Q. (2014), "Material tests on pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) profiles for bridge structures", The 1st Joint Workshop on Building / Civil Engineering between Tongji university and Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, August. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4550.0805 https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.4550.0805
- Xin, H.H., Liu, Y.Q., He, J., Fan, H.F. and Zhang, Y.Y. (2015), "Fatigue behavior of hybrid GFRP-concrete bridge decks under sagging moment", Steel Compos. Struct., Int. J., 18(5), 925-946. https://doi.org/10.12989/scs.2015.18.4.925
- 1. Moisture diffusion and hygrothermal aging of pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates in bridge application vol.100, 2016, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
- 2. Evaluation on material behaviors of pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates vol.182, 2017, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
- 3. Hygrothermal aging effects on axial behaviour of pultruded web–flange junctions and adhesively bonded build-up bridge members vol.37, pp.1, 2018, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
- 4. Impact of hygrothermal aging on rotational behavior of web-flange junctions of structural pultruded composite members for bridge applications vol.110, 2017, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
- 5. Hygrothermal aging effects on flexural behavior of pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates in bridge applications vol.127, 2016, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
- 6. Effect of fiber content on flexural properties of fishnet/GFRP hybrid composites vol.22, pp.1, 2016, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
- 7. Hygrothermal aging effects on shear behavior of pultruded FRP composite web-flange junctions in bridge application vol.110, 2017, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
- 8. Analytical and experimental evaluation of flexural behavior of FRP pultruded composite profiles for bridge deck structural design vol.150, 2017, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
- 9. Experimental and numerical investigation on in-plane compression and shear performance of a pultruded GFRP composite bridge deck vol.180, 2017, doi:10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
연구 과제 주관 기관 : National Natural Science Foundation