- Volume 16 Issue 18
Background: Having a conscience is one of the main pre-requisite of providing nursing care. The knowledge regarding levels of conscience among nurses in eastern countries is limited. So, the purpose of this study was to examine the level of conscience and its related factors among Iranian oncology nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 3 hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Overall, 68 nurses were selected using a non-probability sampling method. The perceptions of conscience questionnaire was used to identify the levels of conscience among nurses. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. Results: The mean nurses' level of conscience scores was 72.7. In the authority and asset sub-scales nurses acquired higher scores. The mean of nurses' scores in burden and depending on culture sub-scales were the least. Also, there were no statistical relationship between some demographic characteristics of participants and their total score on the perceptions of conscience questionnaire. Conclusions: According to study findings Iranian nurses had high levels of conscience. However, understanding all the factors that affect nurses' perception of conscience requires further studies.
- Abbasnezhad M, Rahmani A, Ghahramanian A, et al (2015). Cancer care burden among primary family caregivers of iranian hematologic cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 5499-505. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5499
- Abdollahzadeh F, Moradi N, Pakpour V, et al (2014). Un-met supportive care needs of Iranian breast cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3933-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.9.3933
- Ahlin J, Ericson-Lidman E, Eriksson S, et al (2013). Longitudinal relationships between stress of conscience and concepts of importance. Nurs Ethics, 20, 927-42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733013484487
- Atashzadeh Shorideh F, Ashktorab T, Yaghmaei F (2012). Iranian intensive care unit nurses' moral distress: a content analysis. Nurs Ethics, 19, 464-78. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733012437988
- Avestan Z, Rahmani A, Heshmati-Nabavi F, et al (2015). Perceptions of iranian cancer patients regarding respecting their dignity in hospital settings. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 5453-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5453
- Dahlqvist V, Soderberg A, Norberg A (2009). Facing inadequacy and being good enough: psychiatric care providers' narratives about experiencing and coping with troubled conscience. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs, 16, 242-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2008.01343.x
- Ericson-Lidman E, Strandberg G (2013). Dealing with troubled conscience in municipal care of older people. Nurs Ethics, 20, 300-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733012462054
- Fathollahzade A, Rahmani A, Dadashzadeh A, et al (2015). Financial distress and its predicting factors among iranian cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 1621-5. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.4.1621
- Glasberg AL, Eriksson S, Dahlqvist V, et al (2006). Development and initial validation of the Stress of Conscience Questionnaire. Nurs Ethics, 13, 633-48. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733006069698
- Gustafsson G, Eriksson S, Strandberg G, et al (2010). Burnout and perceptions of conscience among health care personnel: a pilot study. Nurs Ethics, 17, 23-38. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733009351950
- Hashemi F, Nasrabadi AN, Asghari F (2012). Factors associated with reporting nursing errors in Iran: a qualitative study. BMC Nurs, 11, 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6955-11-20
- Hsiao SM, Gau ML, Ingleton C, et al (2011). An exploration of spiritual needs of Taiwanese patients with advanced cancer during the therapeutic processes. J Clin Nurs, 20, 950-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03278.x
- Jensen A, Lidell E (2009). The influence of conscience in nursing. Nurs Ethics, 16, 31-42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733008097988
- Juthberg C, Eriksson S, Norberg A, et al (2007). Perceptions of conscience in relation to stress of conscience. Nurs Ethics, 14, 329-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733007075868
- Juthberg C, Eriksson S, Norberg A, et al (2008). Stress of conscience and perceptions of conscience in relation to burnout among care-providers in older people. J Clin Nurs, 17, 1897-906. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02184.x
- Juthberg C, Sundin K (2010). Registered nurses' and nurse assistants' lived experience of troubled conscience in their work in elderly care--a phenomenological hermeneutic study. Int J Nurs Stud, 47, 20-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.06.001
- Mahmoodishan G, Alhani F, Ahmadi F, et al (2010). Iranian nurses' perception of spirituality and spiritual care: a qualitative content analysis study. J Med Ethics Hist Med, 3, 6.
- Najimi A, Goudarzi AM, Sharifirad G (2012). Causes of job stress in nurses: A cross-sectional study. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 17, 301-5.
- Rafii F, Oskouie F, Nikravesh M (2004). Factors involved in nurses' responses to burnout: a grounded theory study. BMC Nurs, 3, 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6955-3-6
- Ravari A, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Ebadi A, et al (2013). Work values and job satisfaction: a qualitative study of Iranian nurses. Nurs Ethics, 20, 448-58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733012458606
- Saarnio R, Sarvimaki A, Laukkala H, et al (2012). Stress of conscience among staff caring for older persons in Finland. Nurs Ethics, 19, 104-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733011410094
- Tuvesson H, Eklund M, Wann-Hansson C (2012). Stress of Conscience among psychiatric nursing staff in relation to environmental and individual factors. Nurs Ethics, 19, 208-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733011419239
- Vaismoradi M, Salsali M, Ahmadi F (2011). Perspectives of Iranian male nursing students regarding the role of nursing education in developing a professional identity: a content analysis study. Jpn J Nurs Sci, 8, 174-83. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7924.2010.00172.x
- Vanaki Z, Memarian R (2009). Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency. J Prof Nurs, 25, 285-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2009.01.009
- Weaver K (2007). Ethical sensitivity: state of knowledge and needs for further research. Nurs Ethics, 14, 141-55. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733007073694
- Wengstrom Y, Ekedahl M (2006). The art of professional development and caring in cancer nursing. Nurs Health Sci, 8, 20-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2018.2006.00263.x
- Yeh CH, Lin CF, Tsai JL, et al (1999). Determinants of parental decisions on 'drop out' from cancer treatment for childhood cancer patients. J Adv Nurs, 30, 193-9. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.01064.x
- Zahedi F, Sanjari M, Aala M, et al (2013). The code of ethics for nurses. Iran J Public Health, 42, 1-8.
- Conscience, conscientious objection, and nursing: A concept analysis pp.1477-0989, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733017700236