The Contamination of Sventoji River Bottom Sediments by Heavy Metals in Ukmerge, Lithuania

Valskys, Vaidotas;Motiejunas, Mindaugas;Ignatavicius, Gytautas;Sinkevicius, Stanislovas

  • 투고 : 2015.11.09
  • 심사 : 2015.11.16
  • 발행 : 2016.01.29


Bottom sediment pollution with heavy metals of the Sventoji River in Ukmerge, Lithuania using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is analyzed in this article. During the research, qualitative and quantitative parameters of heavy metal concentrations and their distribution were investigated. This article presents obtained results of study, where bottom sediment samples were examined from both shores of the river of Sventoji. During this research, received data was treated using GIS software, which helped to interpolate the data of concentrations into the research polygon of the river. GIS software also helped to evaluate the urban runoff influence to the bottom sediment quality and exclude sources of pollution. The runoff dischargers which transport surface wastewater to the river were registered before sampling. At the mouth of streams, flowing into the river of Sventoji, additional samples were taken. After comprehensive river bottom sediment research there is a possibility to assess the extent of anthropogenic activity and its impact on the river ecosystem and human health.


Heavy metals;River bottom sediments;X-ray fluorescence spectrometry;Concentrations


  1. Scherer, U., Fuchs, S., Behrendt, H., Hillenbrand, T., 2003. Emissions of heavy metals into river basins of Germany. Water Science and Technology 47, 251-257.
  2. Shi, Z.Q., Di Toro, D.M., Allen, H.E., Sparks, D.L., 2013. A general model for kinetics of heavy metal adsorption and desorption on soils. Environmental Science and Technology 47, 3761-3767.
  3. Snedon, C. 2012. Chromium and Its Negative Effects on the Environment. Case Study. Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University.
  4. Suresh G., Sutharsan, P., Ramasamy, V., Venkatachalapathy, R., 2012. Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 84, 117-124.
  5. Taweel, A., Shuhaimi-Othman, M., Ahmad, A.K., 2013. Assessment of heavy metals in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Langat River and Engineering Lake in Bangi, Malaysia, and evaluation of the health risk from tilapia consumption. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 93, 45-51.
  6. State Service for Protected Areas. 2012. Natural frame-work.
  7. Vink, R., Behrendt, H., Salomons, W., 1999. Development of the heavy metal pollution trends in several European rivers: an analysis of point and diffuse sources. Water Science and Technology 39, 215-223.
  8. Wang, C., Liu, S.L., Zhao, Q.H., Deng, L., Dong, S.K., 2012. Spatial variation and contamination assessment of heavy metals in sediments in the Manwan Reservoir, Lancang River. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 82, 32-39.
  9. Xiao, R., Bai, J.H., Gao, H.F., Wang, J.J., Huang, L.B., Liu, P.P., 2012. Distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in water and soils from the college town in the Pearl River Delta, China. Clean-Soil Air Water 40, 1167-1173.
  10. Zerling, L., Hanische, C., Junga, W., 2006. Heavy metal inflow into the floodplains at the mouth of the river Weisse Elster (central Germany).Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 34, 234-244.
  11. Brown, N., Peake, M. 2006. Sources of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff. Science of the Total Environment, 359 (2006) 145-155.
  12. Buggy, C.J., Tobin, J.M., 2008. Seasonal and spatial distribution of metals in surface sediment of an urban estuary. Environmental Pollution 155, 308-319.
  13. Environmental Research of the Federal Ministry of the Environment. Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. 2005. Dischargers of Copper, Zinc and Lead to Water and Soil Analysis of the Emission Pathways and Possible Emission Reduction Measures. Research Report 202 242 20/02.
  14. Filgueiras, A.V., Lavialla, I., Bendicho, C., 2002. Chemical sequential extraction for metal partitioning in environmental solid samples. J. Environ. Monitor 4, 823-857.
  15. Gao, X.L., Chen, C.T.A., 2012. Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of the coastal Bohai Bay. Water Research 46, 1901-1911.
  16. Gobel P., Dierkes C., Coldewey W.G. 2007. Storm water runoff concentration matrix for urban areas. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 91 (2007) 26-42.
  17. Griscom, S.B., Fisher, N.S., Luoma, S.N., 2000. Geochemical influences on assimilation of sedimentbound metals in clams and mussels. Environmental Science and Technology 34, 91-99.
  18. Balevicius, A., Ciunys, A., Bukelskis, E. 2007. Preparation of Environnmental Requirements for Cleaning of Surface Water Bodies. Vilnius. UABS enasis ezerelis". 76 p.
  19. Bhattacharya P., Mukherjee A. B., Bundschuh J., Rn Zevenhoven R., Loeppert R.H. 2007. Arsenic in Soil and Groundwater Environment Biogeochemical Interactions Health Effects and Remediation.
  20. Hooda, P.S., 2010. Assessing bioavailability of soil trace elements. In: Hooda, P.S. (Ed.). Trace Elements in Soil. John Willey and Sons Ltd-Blackwell. 229-265.
  21. Jain, C.K., Sharma, C.K., 2001. Distribution of trace metals in the Hindon river system, India. Water Res. 38, 81-90.
  22. Karak, T., Bhattacharyya, P., Paul, R.K., Das, D.K., 2013. Metal accumulation, biochemical response and yield of Indian mustard grown in soil amended with rural roadside pond sediment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 92, 161-173.
  23. Krein, A., Schorer, M., 2000. Road runoff pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and its contribution to river sediments. Water Res 2000;34:4110-5.
  24. Lithuanian Geological Survey, Institute of Geology. 1999. Lithuania geochemical atlas. ISBN 9986-623-26-X
  25. Lithuanian Hygiene Standard HN 60:2004. Maximum allowable concentrations of hazardous substances in soil.
  26. Middelkoop, H., 2002. Reconstructing floodplain sedimentation rates from heavy metal profiles by reverse modeling. Hydrological Processes 16, 47-64.
  27. Description of requirements for the management of surface water bodies. December 16 of 2014. Nr. D1-1038.