DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Long-Term Trend Analysis and Exploratory Data Analysis of Geumho River based on Seasonal Mann-Kendall Test

계절 맨-켄달 기법을 이용한 금호강 본류 BOD의 장기 경향 분석 및 탐색적 자료 분석

  • Jung, Kang-Young (Nakdong River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Lee, In Jung (Nakdong River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Lee, Kyung-Lak (Nakdong River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Cheon, Se-Uk (Nakdong River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Hong, Jun Young (Department of Civil Engineering Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Ahn, Jung-Min (Nakdong River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research)
  • 정강영 (국립환경과학원 낙동강물환경연구소) ;
  • 이인정 (국립환경과학원 낙동강물환경연구소) ;
  • 이경락 (국립환경과학원 낙동강물환경연구소) ;
  • 천세억 (국립환경과학원 낙동강물환경연구소) ;
  • 홍준영 (경북대학교 토목공학과) ;
  • 안정민 (국립환경과학원 낙동강물환경연구소)
  • Received : 2015.04.21
  • Accepted : 2016.02.04
  • Published : 2016.02.29

Abstract

The government has conducted a plan of total maximum daily loads(TMDL), which divides with unit watershed, for management of stable water quality target by setting the permitted total amount of the pollutant. In this study, BOD concentration trends over the last 10 years from 2005 to 2014 were analyzed in the Geumho river. Improvement effect of water quality throughout the implementation period of TMDL was evaluated using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test and a LOWESS(locally weighted scatter plot smoother) smooth. As a study result of the seasonal Mann-Kendall test and the LOWESS smooth, BOD concentration in the Geumho river appeared to have been reduced or held at a constant. As a result of quantitatively analysis for BOD concentration with exploratory data analysis(EDA), the mean and the median of BOD concentration appeared in the order of GH8 > GH7 > GH6 > GH5 > GH4 > GH3 > GH2 > GH1. The monthly average concentration of BOD appeared in the order of Apr > Mar > Feb >May > Jun > Jul > Jan > Aug > Sep > Dec > Nov > Oct. As a result of the outlier, its value was the most frequent in February, which is estimated 1.5 times more than July, and was smallest frequent in July. The outlier in terms of water quality management is necessary in order to establish a management plan for the contaminants in watershed.

Keywords

Seasonal Mann-Kendall test;Geumho river;Exploratory data analysis;LOWESS;TMDL

References

  1. Cleveland, W. S., 1979, Robust Locally weighted regression and smoothing scatterplots, Journal of American Statistician Assocociation, 74, 829-836. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1979.10481038
  2. Cleveland, W. S., Devlin, S. J., 1988, Locally weighted regression: An approach to regression analysis by local fitting, Journal of the American Statistician Assocociation, 83, 596-610. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1988.10478639
  3. Chris, P. M., William, Parr., 2002, Phosphorus in riversecology and management, Science of the Total Environment, 23, 25-47.
  4. Daegu Regional Environmental Office, 2007, Water environmental management plan in Geumho River middle zone, Daegu Regional Environmental Office, 3-5.
  5. Hirsch, R. M., Slack, J. R., 1984, A nonparametric trend test for seasonal data with serial dependence, Water Resources Research, 20(6), 727-732. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR020i006p00727
  6. Jacoby, W. G., 2000, Loess: a nonparametric, graphical tool for depicting relationships between variables, Electoral Studies, 19, 577-613. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3794(99)00028-1
  7. Jung, K. Y., 2009, Advanced control strategieso water quality management in Nakdong river, Master's Thesis, Kyungpok National University, Daegu Metropolitan City.
  8. Jung, K. Y., Im, T. H., Kim, K. H., Lee, I. J., Yoon, J. S., Heo, S. N., 2012, Development and application of coliform load duration curve for the Geumho river, J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 28(6), 890-895.
  9. Kim, J. H., 2001, Non-parametric tremd analysis of stream quality in Nakdong River, Master's Thesis, Ewha Womans University, Seoul special city.
  10. Kim, J. H., Park, S. S., 2004, Long-term trend analyses of water qualities in Nakdong river based on non-parametric statistical methods, J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 28(4), 574-581.
  11. Kim, M. A., Lee, J. K., Zoh, K. D., 2007, Evaluation of the Geum river by multivariate analysis: principal component analysis and factor analysis, J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 23(1), 161-168.
  12. Kim, S. Y., 2008, Application of Mann-Kendall methods for the performance assessment of the total pollution load management of Geum river, Master's Thesis, Hanbat National University, Daejeon Metropolitan City.
  13. Kim, Y. H., Han, J. H., An, K. G., 2012, Physico-chemical water quality gradients along the main axis of the headwater-to-downstream of Geumho river and their influences on fish guilds, J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 28(4), 561-573.
  14. Kim, E. J., Kim, Y. S., Rhew, D. H., Ryu, J. C., Park, B. K., 2014, A study on the water quality changes of TMDL unit watershed in Guem river basin using a nonparametric trend analysis, J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 30(2), 148-158. https://doi.org/10.15681/KSWE.2014.30.2.148
  15. Kim, J. T., 2014, Lowess and outlier analysis of biological oxygen demand on Nakdong main stream river, JKDISS, 25(1), 119-130. https://doi.org/10.7465/jkdi.2014.25.1.119
  16. Lyu, J. H., Lee, D. G., 2007, Inquiry of water environment in mihocheon (stream) -water quality monitoring focused on TOC-, J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 23(5), 731-739.
  17. Lee, H. W., Park, S. S., 2008, Long-term trend analyses of water qualities in mangyung watershed, J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 24(4), 480-487.
  18. Lee, J. H., Park, S. Y., Kim, D. H., Lee, Y. J., Park, M. J., 2012, Long-term monitoring and analysis for discharge characteristics of nonpoint source pollution by land use types in Geum river basin, J-KOSHAM, 12(6), 343-350.
  19. Lee, S. J., Kim, Y. I., 2014, Improvement on manage-ment of non-point source pollution for reasonable implementation of TMDL focusing on selection of non-point source pollution management region and management of non-point source pollutant, Korean. Soc. Environ. Eng., 36(10), 719-3723. https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2014.36.10.719
  20. Mann, H. B., 1945, Nonparametric tests against trend, Econometrica, 13, 245-249. https://doi.org/10.2307/1907187
  21. Nakdong River Environment Research Center, 2009, '08 Management report of target water quality monito-ring system in Nakdong river basin, Nakdong River Environment Research Center, Gyeongsangbuk-do.
  22. Park, J. D., Oh, S. Y., 2012, Countributions to the impaired water bodies by hydrologic conditions for the management of total maximum daily loads, J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 28(4), 574-581.
  23. Park, J. H., Park, B. K., Lee, J. K., Rhew, D. H., 2013, Necessity of refractory organic matters management in total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), J. Korean Soc. Water Environ., 29(3), 393-399.
  24. Sokal, R. R., Rohlf, F. J., 1995, Biometry: the principles and practive of statistics in biological research, W. H., Freeman & Co., New York, NY.
  25. Son, J. G., Park, J. M., Choi, J. K., Song, J. D., 2003, Characteristics of water quality in upper stream watershed of Dongjin river, J. Korean Soc. Rural Plan., 9(2), 19-28.

Cited by

  1. Verification of water environment monitoring network representativeness under estuary backwater effects vol.190, pp.8, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6849-2
  2. Patterns and Trends of Water Level and Water Quality at the Namgang Junction in the Nakdong River Based on Hourly Measurement Time Series Data vol.27, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5322/JESI.2018.27.2.63