DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Conservation on Plant Species Diversity, Kurdistan, Western Iran

Pourbabaei, Hassan;Rahimi, Verya

  • Received : 2015.07.30
  • Accepted : 2015.10.23
  • Published : 2016.02.28

Abstract

This study was carried out in the Boin and Miryousef regions in Baneh of Kordestan province, west of Iran. Both areas were divided into two parts including protected and unprotected areas. In each area, 20 $1000-m^2$ circular plots were established following a selective method. Tree and shrub species were identified and the number of these species was counted in each sampling plot. The results indicated that 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 109 herbaceous species were found in the studied areas, 40 herbaceous, 7 tree and 3 shrub species were present in protected area, while unprotected area had 16 herbaceous and 3 tree species. The highest value of diversity indices belonged to protected areas in all vegetation layers. In tree layer, Quercus brantii had the greatest value of SIV, whereas the lowest value belonged to Pistacia atlantica. In shrub layer, the highest and lowest values of SIV belonged to Daphne mezereum and Cerasus microcarpa, respectively. Finally, in herbaceous layer, Luzula spicata had highest value of SIV, and lowest value was belonged to Galium sp.

Keywords

diversity;kurdistan province;plant species;protected area;richness

References

  1. Jonathan L, Nicole M. 2005. Patterns of plant diversity in riparian corridors. For Ecol Manage 20: 110-121.
  2. Kaya Z, Raynal DJ. 2001. Biodiversity and conservation of Turkish forests. Biol Conserv 97: 131-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00069-0
  3. Keeley JE, Lubin D, Fotheringham CJ. 2003. Fire and grazing impacts on plant diversity and alien plant invasions in the southern Sierra Nevada. Ecol Appl 13: 1355-1374. https://doi.org/10.1890/02-5002
  4. Krebs CJ. 1989. Ecological Methodology. New York, Harper & Row, pp 432.
  5. Krzic M, Newman RF, Broersma K. 2003. Plant species diversity and soil quality in harvested and grazed boreal aspen stands of northeastern British Columbia. For Ecol Manage 182: 315-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00064-1
  6. Magurran AE. 2003. Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 256 pp.
  7. Marvi Mohajer MR. 2005. Silviculture. University of Tehran, 387 pp.
  8. Mirzaee J. 2005. The relationship between vegetation, topographic and soil factors in the north of Ilam forests, Iran. Msc thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. 75 pp. (in Persian)
  9. Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H. 1989. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. Wiley, New York, 547 pp.
  10. Onadiana M, Dominggues I, Albizu I, Garbisu C, Amezaga I. 2004. vegetation diversity and vertical structure as indicators of forest disturbance. Foe Ecol Manage 195: 341-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.059
  11. Oztas T, Koc A, Comakli B. 2003. Changes in vegetation and soil properties along a slope on over grazed and eroded rangelands. J Arid Environ 55: 93-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1963(02)00267-7
  12. Pourbabaei H, Zandi Navgran S. 2011. Study on floristic and plant species diversity in the Lebanon oak (Quercus libani) site, Chenareh, Marivan, Kordestan Province, western Iran. Nusant Biosci 3: 15-22.
  13. Pourbabaei H, Ebrahimi SS, Torkaman J, Pothier D. 2014. Comparison in woody species composition, diversity and community structure as affected by livestock grazing and human uses in beech forests of northern Iran. For Ideas 1: 99-109.
  14. Reyers B. 2004. Incorporating anthropogenic threats into evaluations of regional biodiversity and prioritization of conservation areas in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Biol Conserv 118: 521-531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2003.09.027
  15. Sagheb-Talebi K, Sajedi T, Yazdian F. 2004. Forests of Iran. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands of Iran, 28 pp.
  16. Vujnovic K, Wein RW, Dale MRT. 2002. Predicting plant species diversity in response to disturbance magnitude in grassland remnants of central Alberta. Can J Bot 80: 504-511. https://doi.org/10.1139/b02-032
  17. Zandi Sh. 2005. Evaluation of plant diversity in the Vivol site of Marivan, Iran. Msc thesis. University of Guilan, Gilan, Iran. 70 pp. (in Persian)
  18. Bazyar M, Haidari M, Shabanian N, Haidari RH. 2013. Impact of physiographical factors on the plant species diversity in the Northern Zagros Forest (Case study, Kurdistan Province, Marivan region). Ann Bio Res 4: 317-324.
  19. Bouahim S, Rhazi L, Mathevet R, Ernoual L, Amami B, Saber E, Muller SD, Grillas P. 2011. Analysis of perception of temporal pools in western of Morocco by the local stakeholders and the interest of sustainable development. J Mate Environ Sci 2: 451-454.
  20. Bunica A. 2000. Comparison of biodiversity in the Rajhenav virgin forest remnant and managed forest in the Dinaric region of Slovenia. Global Ecol Biogeo 9: 201-211. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00155.x
  21. Cesa A, Paruelo JM. 2011. Changes in vegetation structure induced by domestic grazing in Patagonia (Southern Argentina). J Arid Environ 75: 1129-1135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.04.003
  22. Christensen M, Emborg J. 1996. Biodiversity in natural versus managed forest in Denmark. For Ecol Manage 85: 47-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(96)03749-8
  23. Christensen M, Heilmann-Clausen J. 2009. Forest biodiversity gradients and the human impact in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Biodivers Conserv 18: 2205-2221. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9583-9
  24. Chumak V, Duelli P, Rizun V, Martin KO, Wirz P. 2005. Arthropod biodiversity in virgin and managed forests in Central Europe. For Snow Landsc Res 79: 101-109.
  25. Clark JA, Covey KR. 2012. Tree species richness and the logging of natural forests: A meta-analysis. For Ecol Manage 276: 146-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.04.001
  26. Connell JH. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199: 1302-1310. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.199.4335.1302
  27. Dallmeier F, Alonso A. 2004. Biodiversity in Forests. Elsevier Ltd, pp 32-51.
  28. Dorrough JW, Ash JE, Bruce A, McIntyre S. 2007. From plant neighborhood to landscape scales: how grazing modifies native and exotic plant species richness in grassland. Plant Ecol 19: 185-198.
  29. Ghazanfari H, Namiranian M, Sobhani H, Mohajer M. 2004. Traditional forest management and its application to encourage participation for sustainable forest management in the northern mountains of Kurdistan Province, Iran. Scand J For Res 19 Suppl 4: 65-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/14004080410034074
  30. Gorji Bahri Y. 2000. The study of typology classification and planning in experimental Vaz forest. PhD thesis. Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. 138 pp. (in Persian)
  31. Hendricks HH, Bond WJ, Midgley JJ, Novellie PA. 2005. Plant species richness and composition a long livestock grazing intensity gradients in a Namaqualand (South Africa) protected area. Plant ecol 176: 19-33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-003-0009-6
  32. Heydarpour Tutkale Z, Shabanali Fami H, Asadi A, Malek Mohammadi I. 2008. A study on the role of membership in forestry cooperatives in the revitalization of forestry resources in the western part of Mazandaran province. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 15: 1-9.
  33. Hunter ML. 1996. Fundamentals of Conservation Biology. Blackwell Sciences, Cambridge, 516 pp.
  34. Jazirei MH, Rastaghi E. 2003. Silviculture of Zagros. Tehran University Press, 560 pp.
  35. Adam JH, Mahmud AM, Muslim NE. 2007. Cluster analysis on floristic and forest structure ofhilly lowland forest in LakKawi, Sabah of Malaysia. Int J Bot 3: 351-358. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijb.2007.351.358
  36. Al Yassin. 2002. Under the sky of land. Samarkand publications, 170 pp.
  37. BandaT, Schwartz MW, Caro T. 2006. Woody vegetation structure and composition along a protection gradient in a miombo ecosystem of western Tanzania. For Ecol Manage 230: 179-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.04.032
  38. Zobeiri M. 2006. Forest inventory. Tehran University, 401 pp.