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Time-activity Patterns and PM2.5 Exposure of the Elderly in Urban and Rural Areas

도시와 농촌 거주 노령인구의 시간활동양상 차이와 초미세먼지 (PM2.5) 노출

  • Received : 2015.09.09
  • Accepted : 2016.01.20
  • Published : 2016.02.29

Abstract

Objectives: Personal exposure to air pollution is affected by contact over time and by location. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personal exposure to $PM_{2.5}$ and the time-activity patterns of the elderly in urban and rural areas. Methods: A total of 44 elderly participants were recruited for a 24-hour $PM_{2.5}$ personal exposure measurement. Twenty-four were from Seoul (urban area) and 20 were from Asan (rural area). Energy expenditure and spatiotemporal positioning were monitored through $PM_{2.5}$ measurement. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between $PM_{2.5}$ and time-activity pattern. Results: Daily average $PM_{2.5}$ personal exposures were $19.1{\pm}9.7{\mu}g/m^3$ in Seoul and $29.1{\pm}16.9{\mu}g/m^3$ in Asan. Although outdoor exposure was higher in Seoul than in Asan, residential indoor exposure was higher in Asan than in Seoul. Higher $PM_{2.5}$ personal exposure in Asan could be explained by longer time in residential indoor environments and higher indoor $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations. Seoul elderly had higher energy expenditure, which may be due to the use of mass transportation. Conclusion: Personal exposure to $PM_{2.5}$ was higher among Asan elderly than Seoul elderly because of high residential indoor concentrations and longer residential time. Lack of energy spent and higher personal exposure to $PM_{2.5}$ might have led to higher risk among the Asan elderly.

Keywords

Air pollution;personal exposure;$PM_{2.5}$;regional variation;time-activity patterns

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Acknowledgement

Grant : 노령인구의 환경유해인자 노출 및 건강영향 연구 (IV)

Supported by : 국립환경과학원