- Volume 45 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Hypolipidemic Effect of Onion Peel Extract in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Extract with a High-Fat Diet
고지방식이를 섭취한 흡연 흰쥐모델에서 양파껍질 추출물의 혈액지질 대사 개선 효과
- Kim, Juyeon (Department of Food and Nutrition, Changwon National University) ;
- Noh, Sang Kyu (Department of Food and Nutrition, Changwon National University)
- Received : 2015.12.17
- Accepted : 2016.01.04
- Published : 2016.02.29
This study was designed to investigate whether or not onion peel extract can lower blood lipid levels in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) extract with a high-fat diet. Initially, male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in a stainless steel, wire-bottomed cage with free access to AIN-93G diet. Rats were weight-matched and assigned to the following five groups: 1) control rats (CT) fed standard AIN-93G diet alone, 2) control rats exposed to CS extract (CT+CS), 3) high-fat group (HF) fed standard AIN-93 diet supplemented with 3% lard and 0.2% cholesterol, 4) high-fat group exposed to CS extract (HF+CS) fed standard AIN-93 diet supplemented with 3% lard and 0.2% cholesterol plus CS extract, and 5) high-fat plus onion peel (OP) extract group exposed to CS extract (HF+CS+OP) fed standard AIN-93 diet supplemented with 3% lard, 0.2% cholesterol, and onion peel extract (20 mg/17 g diet) plus CS extract. Using this feeding protocol, all animals completely consumed their respective diets throughout the 6 week duration. Blood was collected via the orbital sinus at weeks 0, 3, and 6, following overnight food deprivation. OP extract feeding resulted in significant reductions in blood triglyceride, total cholesterol, and non-HDL-cholesterol. Further, serum activities of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were significantly reduced by OP extract at 6 weeks. These results provide clear evidence that onion peel extract has a profound inhibitory effect on blood lipids in rats exposed to CS extract. These findings suggest that OP extract can be used as an effective means in alleviating the serum lipid concentration after CS exposure.
Supported by : 산업자원부
- Rogers JM. 2008. Tobacco and pregnancy: overview of exposures and effects. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 84: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdrc.20119
- Church DF, Pryor WA. 1985. Free radical chemistry of cigarette smoke and its toxicological implications. Environ Health Perspect 64: 111-126. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8564111
- Loft S, Poulsen HE. 1996. Cancer risk and oxidative DNA damage in man. J Mol Med 74: 297-312. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00207507
- Pittilo RM. 2000. Cigarette smoking, endothelial injury and cardiovascular disease. Int J Exp Pathol 81: 219-230.
- McGill HC. 1988. The cardiovascular pathology of smoking. Am Heart J 115: 250-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703(88)90645-X
- Ambrose JA, Barua RS. 2004. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol 43: 1731-1737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.12.047
- Craig WY, Palomaki GE, Haddow JE. 1989. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data. Br Med J 298: 784-788. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6676.784
- Nishio E, Watanabe Y. 1997. Cigarette smoke extract inhibits plasma paraoxonase activity by modification of the enzyme's free thiols. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 236: 289-293. https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6961
- Frei B, Forte TM, Ames BN, Cross CE. 1991. Gas phase oxidants of cigarette smoke induce lipid peroxidation and changes in lipoprotein properties in human blood plasma. Protective effects of ascorbic acid. Biochem J 277: 133-138. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2770133
- Cross CE, van der Vliet A, Eiserich JP. 1998. Cigarette smokers and oxidant stress: a continuing mystery. Am J Clin Nutr 67: 184-185. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/67.2.184
- Ministry of Health and Welfare. 2014. Korea Health Statistics 2013: Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-1). p 23.
- Mizuno O, Okamoto K, Sawada M, Mimura M, Watanabe T, Morishita T. 2005. Obesity and smoking: relationship with waist circumference and obesity-related disorders in men undergoing a health screening. J Atheroscler Thromb 12: 199-204. https://doi.org/10.5551/jat.12.199
- Shenouda SM, Vita JA. 2007. Effects of flavonoid-containing beverages and EGCG on endothelial function. J Am Coll Nutr 26: 366S-372S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2007.10719625
- Duffy SJ, Keaney JF Jr, Holbrook M, Gokce N, Swerdloff PL, Frei B, Vita JA. 2001. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 104: 151-156. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.104.2.151
- Nagaya N, Yamamoto H, Uematsu M, Itoh T, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T, Kangawa K, Miyatake K. 2004. Green tea reverses endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers. Heart 90: 1485-1486. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2003.026740
- Griffiths G, Trueman L, Crowther T, Thomas B, Smith B. 2002. Onion-a global benefit to health. Phytother Res 16: 603-615. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1222
- Jakubowski H. 2003. On the health benefit of Allium sp. Nutrition 19: 167-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(02)00953-X
- El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, El-Naga NI. 2005. Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol 43: 57-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.08.012
- Chen JH, Chen H, Tsai SJ, Jen CJ. 2000. Chronic consumption of raw but not boiled Welsh onion juice inhibits rat platelet function. J Nutr 130: 34-37. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.1.34
- Yamamoto Y, Aoyama S, Hamaguchi N, Rhi GS. 2005. Antioxidantive and antihypertensive effects of Welch onion on rats fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69: 1311-1317. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.69.1311
- Herrmann K. 1976. Flavonols and flavones in food plants: a review. Int J Food Sci Technol 11: 433-448. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1976.tb00743.x
- Cook NC, Samman S. 1996. Flavonoids-Chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. J Nutr Biochem 7: 66-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/0955-2863(95)00168-9
- Benowitz NL, Jacob P 3rd, Fong I, Gupta S. 1994. Nicotine metabolic profile in man: comparison of cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 268: 296-303.
- Zhang D, Tao Y, Gao J, Zhang C, Wan S, Chen Y, Huang X, Sun X, Duan S, Schonlau F, Rohdewald P, Zhao B. 2002. Pycnogenol in cigarette filters scavenges free radicals and reduces mutagenicity and toxicity of tobacco smoke in vivo. Toxicol Ind Health 18: 215-224. https://doi.org/10.1191/0748233702th145oa
- Chen H, Hansen MJ, Jones JE, Vlahos R, Bozinovski S, Anderson GP, Morris MJ. 2006. Cigarette smoke exposure reprograms the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y axis to promote weight loss. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173: 1248-1254. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200506-977OC
- Chiolero A, Jacot-Sadowski I, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J. 2007. Association of cigarettes smoked daily with obesity in a general adult population. Obesity 15: 1311-1318. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.153
- Kim SK, Kim MK. 2004. Effect of dried powders or ethanol extracts of onion flesh and peel on lipid metabolism, antioxidative and antithrombogenic capacities in 16-month-old rats. Korean J Nutr 37: 623-632.
- Freeman DJ, Packard CJ. 1995. Smoking and plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Clin Sci 89: 333-342. https://doi.org/10.1042/cs0890333
- Steinberg D, Pathasarathy S, Carew TE, Khoo JC, Witztum JL. 1989. Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenecity. N Engl J Med 320: 915-924. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198904063201407
- Latha MS, Vijayammal PL, Kurup PA. 1988. Effect of exposure of rats to cigarette smoke on the metabolism of lipids. Atherosclerosis 70: 225-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(88)90173-6
- Kim D, Seo S. 1988. Effect of drinking and smoking on AST and ALT activities. Korean J Prev Med 21: 329-339.
- El-Zayadi AR. 2006. Heavy smoking and liver. World J Gastroenterol 12: 6098-6101. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i38.6098
- Kim J, Seo Y, Noh SK, Cha YJ. 2010. A concentrated onion extract lowers serum lipid levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Korean J Food Preserv 17: 398-404.
- Shin HK, Seo YJ, Kim JY, Kim CS, Noh SK. 2007. Onion favorably affects serum markers of ethanol-induced fatty liver in rats. Korean J Food Preserv 14: 662-668.
- Sheo HJ, Jung DL. 1997. The effects of onion juice on serum lipid levels in rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26: 1164-1172.
- Nam KH, Baik HW, Choi TY, Yoon SG, Park SW, Joung H. 2007. Effects of ethanol extract of onion on the lipid profiles in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Korean J Nutr 40: 242-248.
- Kumari K, Augusti KT. 2007. Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol 109: 367-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.07.045
- Juhel C, Armand M, Pafumi Y, Rosier C, Vandermander J, Lairon D. 2000. Green tea extract (AR25) inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in vitro. J Nutr Biochem 11: 45-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(99)00070-4
- Shishikura Y, Khokhar S, Murray BS. 2006. Effect of tea polyphenols on emulsification of olive oil in a small intestine model system. J Agric Food Chem 54: 1906-1913. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051988p
- Igarashi K, Ohmuma M. 1995. Effects of isorhamnetin, rhamnetin, and quercetin on the concentrations of cholesterol and lipoperoxide in the serum and liver and on the blood and liver antioxidative enzyme activities of rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59: 595-601. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.59.595
- Faux SP, Tai T, Thorne D, Xu Y, Breheny D, Gaca M. 2009. The role of oxidative stress in the biological responses of lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke. Biomarkers 14 (Suppl 1): 90-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/13547500902965047
- Azuma K, Minami Y, Ippoushi K, Terao J. 2007. Lowering effects of onion intake on oxidative stress biomarkers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 40: 131-140. https://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.40.131
- Kim JM. 2012. Effects of onion peel extracts on antioxidant status-in vitro and human intervention study. PhD Dissertation. Gyeongnam University, Gyeongnam, Korea.