DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Roasting Conditions for Optimization of Citri Unshii Pericarpium Antioxidant Activity Using Response Surface Methodology

반응표면분석을 이용한 진피의 항산화 활성 최적화를 위한 로스팅 조건 확립

  • Hwang, Hyun Jung (Department of Nutritional Science & Food Management, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Park, Jeong Ah (Department of Nutritional Science & Food Management, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Choi, Jeong In (Department of Nutritional Science & Food Management, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Kim, Hee Soo (CoffeeJia Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Cho, Mi Sook (Department of Nutritional Science & Food Management, Ewha Womans University)
  • 황현정 (이화여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 박정아 (이화여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 최정인 (이화여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 김희수 ((주)커피지아) ;
  • 조미숙 (이화여자대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Received : 2015.09.09
  • Accepted : 2016.01.15
  • Published : 2016.02.29

Abstract

This study was conducted to establish roasting conditions for optimization of Citri Unshii Pericarpium antioxidant activity using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of two independent variables, namely roasting temperature ($40{\sim}100^{\circ}C$; $X_1$) and roasting time ($5{\sim}15min$; $X_2$), on responses such as electron donating ability ($Y_1$), total phenolic content ($Y_2$), total flavonoid content ($Y_3$), and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity ($Y_4$). The maximum electron donating ability was 72.38% at a roasting temperature of $71.12^{\circ}C$ and roasting time of 9.39 min. The maximum total phenolic content was 10.76 mg tannic acid equivalents/g at a roasting temperature of $69.71^{\circ}C$ and roasting time of 8.39 min. The maximum total flavonoid content was 105.99 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g at $72.54^{\circ}C$ and 8.64 min. The maximum hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was 60.33% at $68.97^{\circ}C$ and 9.84 min. Based on the superimposition of three dimensional RSM with respect to electron donating ability, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity under various conditions, optimum conditions were established as follows: roasting temperature of $70.90^{\circ}C$ and roasting time of 9.03 min.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 서울지방중소기업청

References

  1. Bang BH, Kim KP, Kim MJ, Jeong EJ. 2011. Quality characteristics of cookies added with Chungkukjang powder. Korean J Food & Nutr 24: 210-216. https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2011.24.2.210
  2. Kim EY, Baik IH, Kim JH, Kim SR, Rhyu MR. 2004. Screening of the antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants. Korean J Food Sci Technol 36: 333-338.
  3. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. 1999. Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA. p 105-350.
  4. Yoon BR, Lee YJ, Hong HD, Lee YC, Kim YC, Rhee YK, Kim KT, Lee OK. 2012. Inhibitory effects of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer treated with high temperature and high pressure on oxidative stress. Korean J Food & Nutr 25: 800-806. https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2012.25.4.800
  5. Moon YG, Hong JS, Song MH. 2012. DPPH radical scavenging activity and composition of essential oil from the herbs of Jeju Agastache rugosa. J Life Sci 22: 156-160. https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.156
  6. An HJ, Park KJ, Kim SS, Hyun JM, Park JH, Park SM, Yun SH. 2014. Antioxidative activities of new citrus hybrid 'Hamilgam' peel extracts. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 22: 442-448. https://doi.org/10.7783/KJMCS.2014.22.6.442
  7. Korea Food & Drug Administration. 2005. The Korean pharmacopeia. 8th ed. Shinil Books, Seoul, Korea. p 1455-1456.
  8. Moresi M, Clementi F, Rossi J, Medici R, Vinti L. 1987. Production of biomass untreated orange peel by Fusarium avenaceum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 27: 37-45.
  9. Monforte MT, Trovato A, Kirjavainen S, Forestieri AM, Galati EM, Lo Curto RB. 1995. Biological effects of hesperidin, a Citrus flavonoid. (note II): hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat. Farmco 50: 595-599.
  10. Cho KM, Joo OS. 2012. Enhances antioxidant effect of purple sweet potato by roasting. Korean J Food Preserv 19: 735-743. https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2012.19.5.735
  11. Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH. 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 50: 3010-3014. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0115589
  12. Jung HJ, Lee SR. 1991. Browning and mutagenicity of roasted barley and sesame seeds. Korean J Food Sci Technol 23: 280-285.
  13. Wanasundara PKJPD, Shahidi F. 1996. Optimization of hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction of flaxseed proteins using response surface methodology. J Food Sci 6: 606-607.
  14. Kim JW, Moon BS, Park YM, Yoo NH, Ryoo IJ, Chinh NT, Yoo ID, Kim JP. 2005. Structures and antioxidant activity of diketopiperazines isolated from the mushroom Sarcodon aspratus. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 48: 93-97.
  15. Lim YB, Park SH, Ann BJ, Kim YI. 2008. Practical design of experiments. Free Academy, Seoul, Korea. p 41-42.
  16. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci Technol 28: 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
  17. Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200. https://doi.org/10.1038/1811199a0
  18. Isabelle M, Lee BL, Ong CN, Liu X, Huang D. 2008. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, polyphenolics, and lipophilic antioxidant profiles of mulberry fruits cultivated in southern China. J Agric Food Chem 56: 9410-9416. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf801527a
  19. Davis WB. 1947. Determination of flavanones in citrus fruits. Anal Chem 19: 476-478. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60007a016
  20. Park SW, Chung SK, Park JC. 2000. Active oxygen scavenging activity of luteolin-7-O-${\beta}$-D-glucoside isolated from Humulus japonicus. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 29: 106-110.
  21. Lee DW, Lee SY, Chung HS, Choi YW, Im DS, Lee YG. 2013. Optimization of a process for extraction of petasin from Petasites japonicus leaves by response surface methodology. J Life Sci 23: 1360-1364. https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2013.23.11.1360
  22. Lee BB, Park SR, Han CS, Han DY, Park EJ, Park HR, Lee SC. 2008. Antioxidant activity and inhibition activity against ${\alpha}$-amylase and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase of Viola mandshurica extracts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 405-409. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.4.405
  23. Jeong JE, Shim SP, Jeong YS, Jung HK, Kim YC, Hong JH. 2011. Optimization of extraction conditions for ethanol extracts from Citrus unshiu peel by response surface methodology. Korean J Food Preserv 18: 755-763. https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.755
  24. Huang MT, Ho CT, Lee C. 1992. Phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health II. ACS Symposium Series 507. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, USA. p 54-71.
  25. Sakihama Y, Cohen MF, Grace SC, Yamasaki H. 2002. Plant phenolic antioxidant and prooxidant activities: phenolics-induced oxidative damage mediated by metals in plants. Toxicology 177: 67-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00196-8
  26. Scalbert A, Johnson IT, Saltmarsh M. 2005. Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond. Am J Clin Nutr 81: 215S-217S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/81.1.215S
  27. Kang MA, Kim MB, Kim JH, Ko YH, Lim SB. 2010. Integral antioxidative capacity and antimicrobial activity of pressurized liquid extracts from 40 selected plant species. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39: 1249-1256. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.9.1249
  28. Lee YR, Woo KS, Hwang IG, Kim HY, Lee SH, Lee J, Jeong HS. 2012. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of garlic (Allium sativum L.) with different heat and pressure treatments. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 278-282. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.2.278
  29. Lee SG, Lee EJ, Park WD, Kim JB, Choi SW. 2011. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Korean traditional medicinal prescriptions. Korean J Food Sci Technol 43: 624-632. https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.5.624
  30. Choi SR, You DH, Kim JY, Park CB, Kim DY, Ryu J. 2009. Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau according to harvesting parts and time. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 17: 115-120.
  31. Kim YD, Ko WJ, Koh KS, Jeon YJ, Kim SH. 2009. Composition of flavonoids and antioxidative activity from juice of Jeju native citrus fruits during maturation. Korean J Nutr 42: 278-290. https://doi.org/10.4163/kjn.2009.42.3.278
  32. Hyon JS, Kang SM, Senevirathne M, Koh WJ, Yang TS, Oh MC, Oh CK, Jeon YJ, Kim SH. 2010. Antioxidative activities of dried and fresh citrus peels in Jeju. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 26: 88-94.
  33. Yun CS. 2007. Studies of Citrus unshiu peel by yeast fermentation. MS Thesis. Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. p 18-21.
  34. Park CD, Jung HK, Park CH, Jung YS, Hong JH, Ko HS, Kang DH, Kim HS. 2012. Isolation of citrus peel flavonoid bioconversion microorganism and inhibitory effect on the oxidative damage in pancreatic beta cells. Korean Soc Biotechnol Bioeng J 27: 67-74.
  35. Halliwell B, Aruoma OI. 1991. DNA damage by oxygen-derived species. Its mechanism and measurement in mammalian systems. FEBS Lett 281: 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(91)80347-6