Identification of Variables as the Effects of Integrated Education Using the Delphi Method

통합교육의 효과변인 추출을 위한 델파이 연구

  • Received : 2016.09.26
  • Accepted : 2016.12.22
  • Published : 2016.12.31


In this study, the Delphi Method was conducted to extract variables as effects of integrated education. Forty-six experts engaged in both the integrated education and research fields participated in this study. The Delphi survey was conducted for three rounds. In the first round, an open questionnaire was given asking variables possibly considered as effects of integrated education. In the second round, variables induced from analysis of the first survey results were given and the degree of agreement for each variable was determined according to the Likert scale. In the third round of the survey, mean, standard deviation, and the first and third quartile calculated using the results of the second survey were given to experts to determine their degree of assent. In addition, categories for variables were suggested. The degree of agreement for appropriateness of categorization and relative importance were determined As a result, a total of 18 variables were chosen except for career awareness. They were categorized according to their definition and properties into five categories: 'creativity' (flexible thinking, associative thinking, intuitive thinking, creative thinking), 'problem solving' (meta-cognition, problem recognition and solving, critical thinking, decision making ability, ability of knowledge application, knowledge and information processing skills), 'integrative perception and sensitivity' (concern and interest in various disciplines, understanding and acceptance of difference, integrative thinking), 'interpersonal relations' (communication skills, cooperation), and 'disciplinary literacy' (humanistic imagination, basic knowledge and literacy of each discipline, academic motivation). The degree of agreement was high in variables included in 'creativity' and 'problem solving' categories and the frequency of choosing the importance was high in variables included in 'integrative perception and sensitivity'. The educational implication related to implementation and practice of integrated education were discussed on the basis of results.


effects of integrated education;creativity;problem solving;integrative perception and sensitivity;disciplinary literacy;delphi method


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Amabile, T. M. (1983). Motivational synergy: Toward new conceptualization of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the workplace. Human resource management review, 3(3), 185-210.
  2. Bernstein, R., & Bernstein, M. (2007). Spark of Genius(Park, J. Trans). Seoul: Eco's Library. (Original work published 2001)
  3. Bernstein, R., (1999). Discovery. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Creativity(pp. 559-571). London: Academic Press
  4. Brown, S. W. (2008). Assessment is not a dirty word. (Eds.) D. M. Moss, T. Osborn, & D. Kaufman, Interdisciplinary education in the age of assessment. N.Y.: Routledge.
  5. Cho, E., Lee, S., Shin, J., & Hong, Y. (2015). A Study of the Key Factors and Expected Outcomes of Convergence Education using a Delphi Technique. Journal of Gifted/Talented Education, 25(1), 37-58.
  6. Cho, H. & Choi, K. (1998). The Necessities and Current States of Educating Ethical Characteristics of Science. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 18(4), 559-570.
  7. Choi, H., & Kim, T. (2012). The influences on the adolescent sociality of parents rearing attitudes family members. Human right & wellfare research, 12, 63-84.
  8. Choi, M., & Choi, B. (1999). Content Organization of Middle School Integrated Science Focusing on the Integrated Theme. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 19(2), 204-216.
  9. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. N.Y. : Plenum.
  10. Drake, S. M. (2007). Creating standards-based integrated curriculum:Aligning curriculum, content, assessment and instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
  11. Drake, S. M., & Burns, R. C. (2006). Integrated curriculum (Park, Y., Kang, H., Kim, I., & Hur, Y. Trans). Seoul: Wonmisa. (Original work published 2004)
  12. Erickson, H. L. (2008). Stirring the head, heart, and soul(3rd ed.). CA: Corwin Press.
  13. Fogarty, R. (1991). Ten ways to integrated curriculum. Educational Leadership, 49(2), 61-65.
  14. Han, H. & Lee, H. (2012). A Study on the Teachers' Perceptions and Needs of STEAM Education. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 12(3), 573-603.
  15. Han, S., & Kim, W. (2016). A Study on the Effects of Communicative Competence on Information Literacy of Undergraduates. Journal of the Korean Library and Information Science Society), 50(1), 377-394.
  16. Haylock, D. W. (1997). Recognizing mathematical creativity in schoolchildren. Zentralblatt fur Didaktik der Mathematik, 29(3), 68-74.
  17. Hu, W., & Adey, P. (2002). A scientific creativity test for secondary school students. International Journal of Science Education, 24(4), 389-403.
  18. Im, H. P. (2007). Korean linguistics and humanistic imagination. The korean language and literature, 146, 7-34.
  19. Ingram, J. B. (1995). Curriculum integration and lifelong education (Bae, J., & Lee, Y. Trans). Seoul: Hakjisa. (Original work published 1979)
  20. Isaksen, S. C., Murdock, M. C., Firestein, R. L., & Treffinger, D. J. (Eds.) (1993). Nurturing and developing creativity: The emergence of a discipline. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  21. Kallio, E. (2011). Integrative thinking is the key: An evaluation of current research into the development of adult thinking. Theory & Psychology, 21(6), 785-801.
  22. Kang, C., Jeing, K., Kim, H., & Kwon, D. (2010). The Study on the Validation of Integrated Thinking Disposition Inventory for Elementary School Children. The Journal of Thinking Development, 6(1), 105-124
  23. Kang, I. A. (1998). Why is the constructivism. Seoul: Moonumsa.
  24. Kim, D. (1993). Developing the Integrated Curriculum at School. Journal of Korean Education, 20(1), 89-104.
  25. Kim, J. S. (2011). The plan to strengthen STEAM education by which creative Human resources can be cultivated in the field of science and technology. Education Policy Forum, 215, 4-7.
  26. Kim, J., Park, E., Park, J., Bang, D., Lee, Y., & Yoon, H. (2015). A meta-analysis on the effects of integrated education research. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 35(3), 403-417.
  27. Kim, K., & Ohn, J. (2011). Understanding by design. Seoul: Education Academy.
  28. Kwak, B. (1983). Curriculum. Seoul: Jooyoungmunhwasa.
  29. Kwak, H., & Ryu, H. (2016). Analysis on the Research Trends in STEAM Education. Journal of Science Education, 40(1), 72-89.
  30. Kwon, H., & Ahn, J. (2012). The analysis on domestic research trends for convergence and integrated science education. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 32(20), 265-278.
  31. Kwon, S. (2012). A Prospect on Concept Mapping for Learning of Music Elements, Korean Journal of Research in Music Education, 41(2), 67-100.
  32. Latham, G., Latham, S. D., & Whyte, G. (2004). Fostering integrative thinking: adapting the executive education model to the MBA program. Journal of Management Education, 28(1), 3-18.
  33. Lawshe, C. H.(1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
  34. Lee, H., Kwon, H. S., Park, K., Jung, C. R., Oh, H. J., & Nam, J. C. (2012). The effects of integrated science instruction: A meta-analysis on scientific knowledge, scientific inquiry ability, and science-related attitude. Korean Journal of Teacher Education, 28(2), 223-246.
  35. Lee, H., Kwon, Y., Kim, S., Son, S., Han, W. S., Hong, S. K., Park, B. Y., & Jeon, J. (2014). An analysis of the trends of domestic research related to integrated education in science. Journal of Research in Curriculum Instruction, 18(2), 295-319.
  36. Lee, J. (2001). Delphi method. Seoul: Kyoyookbook.
  37. Lee, J. W. (1991). Reinterpretation of knowledge integration understood by ‘structure of knowledge'. The Journal of Curriculum Studies, 10(3), 33-45.
  38. Lee, K., & Choi, I. (2009). The effective operation of integrated curriculum. Seoul: Hakjisa.
  39. Lee, K., & Kim, K. (2012). Exploring the Meanings and Practicability of Korea STEAM Education. The Journal of Elementary Education, 25(3), 55-81.
  40. Lee, Y. D. (1983). Concept of curriculum integration. Korean Educationa Development Institute(Ed.). Seoul: Kyoyookbook.
  41. Lim, Y. N. (2012). Problems and ways to improve korean STEAM Education based on integrated curriculum. The Journal of Elementary Education, 25(4), 53-80.
  42. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. (2009). 2009 Revised National Curriculum of Science. Seoul: Daehan Textbook Publishing.
  43. Ministry of Education. (2015). 2015 revised curriculum -Science-. Seoul: Ministry of Education.
  44. Oh, C. S. (2015). Issues and tasks of the practical application ways of convergence education in secondary school. Korean Journal of Educational Research, 53(3), 229-264.
  45. Oh, H., & Sung, E. (2013). Competency Modeling of Convergence Talent. Asian journal of education, 14(4), 202-228.
  46. Osborne, H. (1984). Creativity, progress and personality. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 18(2), 213-221.
  47. Park, J. W. (2013). What kind of humanistic imagination do we need: Humanities as a new approach to communication studies. communication theory, 9, 9-39.
  48. Park, J., & Lee, J. (2013). A systematic review of the studies of integrative education. Asian Journal of Education, 14(1), 97-135.
  49. Park, K. M., Choi, Y. H., Hong, J. H., Lee, K. N., Moon, S. H., Tae, J. M., Lee, K. P., Min, B. K., & Noh, K. S. (2014). A validity study on the key competencies factors of STEAM. The Korean Journal of Technology Education, 14(3), 214-234.
  50. Paul, R. W. (1984). Critical thinking: Fundamental to education for a free society. Educational Leadership, 42(1), 5-14.
  51. Repko, A. F. (2012). Interdisciplinary research: Process and theory. Washington DC: SAGE.
  52. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1987). What's all the fuss about metacognition? In A. H. Schoenfeld(Eds.), Cognitive science and methematics education (189-215), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  53. Sim, J., Lee, Y., & Kim, H. K. (2015). Understanding STEM, STEAM education, and addressing the issues facing STEAM in the Korean context. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 35(4), 709-723.
  54. Snow, C. P., & Collini, S. (2001). Two cultures (Oh, Y. Trans). Seoul: Sciencebooks. (Original work published 1959)
  55. Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1991). An investment theory of creativity and its development. Human Development, 34, 1-32.
  56. Wolfinger, D. M., & Stockard, J. S. Jr. (1997). Elementary method: an integrated curriculum. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  57. Yang, J. M. (2013). The Research of the Music-centered Convergent Education Method. The Research of the Music-centered Convergent Education Method, 6, 57-74.
  58. You, Y. (2009). Educational technology and prospect of knowledge integration in the educational field. The Korean Society for the Study of Education Conference, 3, 43-55.