Fabrication and characterization of 3-D porous scaffold by polycaprolactone

폴리카프로락톤을 이용한 3차원 다공성 지지체 제조 및 특성 분석

  • Received : 2015.10.01
  • Accepted : 2016.02.04
  • Published : 2016.02.29


This study was a preparatory experiment aimed the development of membrane scaffolds for tissue engineering. A PCL composite solution contained sodium chloride(NaCl). PCL porous membrane scaffolds were formed on a glass casting plate using a film applicator and immersed in distilled water to remove the NaCl reaching after drying. NaCl was used as a pore former for a 3 dimensional pore net-work. The dry condition parameters were $4^{\circ}C$, room temperature (RT) and $40^{\circ}C$ for each different temperatures in the drying experiment. SEM revealed the morphology of the pores in the membrane after drying and evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity for basic bio-compatibility. The macro and micro pores existed together in the scaffold and showed a 3-dimensional pore net-working morphology at RT. The in vitro cytotoxicity test result was "grade 2" in accordance with the criterion for cytotoxicity by ISO 10993-5. The dry condition affected the formation of a 3 dimensional pore network and micro and macro pores. Therefore, these results are expected provide the basic process for the development of porous membrane scaffolds to control degradation and allow drug delivery.


Polycaprolactone;Porosity;Salt leaching;Scaffold;3-D porous


  1. RP Lanza, R Langer, WL Chick, "Principles of tissue engineering", Academic Press, pp. 221-231, 1997
  2. J.T. Kim, Sumin Lim, B.S Kim, D.Y. Lee, J.H. Choi, "Fabrication and characterization of 3-D porous collagen scaffold", J. of Biomedical Engineering Research, vol.35, pp.192-196, 2014
  3. Kwangwoo Nam, Tsuyoshi Kimura, Seiichi Funamoto, Akio Kishida, "Preparation of a collagen/polymer hybrid gel designed for tissue membranes. part I: Controlling the polymer-collagen cross-linking process using an ethanol/water co-solvent" Acta Biomaterialia, vol.6, pp.403-408, 2010.
  4. JT Kim, DY Lee, JW Jang, TH Kim, YW Jang, "Characterization of cross linked hyaluronic acid microbeads by divinyl sulfone", J. of Biomedical Engineering Research, vol.34, pp.117-122, 2013
  5. Marguerite Rinaudo, "Chitin and chitosan: Properties and applications", Prog. Polym. Sci. vol.31, pp.603-632, 2006
  6. Zhensheng Li, Hassna R. Ramay, Kip D. Hauch, Demin Xiao, Miqin Zhang, "Chitosan-alginate hydrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering" Biomaterials, vol.26(18), pp.3919-3928, 2005
  7. Wen-Jen Lin, Chia-Hui Lu, "Characterization and permeation of microporous poly($\varepsilon$-caprolactone) films", Journal of Membrane Science, vol.198, pp.109-118, 2002
  8. CH. Schugens, V. Maquet, C. Grandfils, R. Jerome, "Biodegradable and macroporous polylactide implants for cell transplantation: 1. Preparation of macroporous polylactide supports by solid-liquid phase separation", Polymer, vol.37(6), pp.1027-1038, 1996
  9. Susan Hurrell, Ruth E. Cameron, "The effect of initial polymer morphology on the degradation and drug release form polyglycolide", Biometerials, vol.23(11), pp.2401-2409, 2002
  10. Yuying Xie, Jong-Soon Park, Soon-Kook Kang, "Study on the characteristics and biodegradable of synthetic PLGA membrane from lactic acid and glycolic acid", J. of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, vol.16(4), pp.2958-2965, 2015
  11. S J Park, Y S Shin, J R Lee, H B Lee, "Surface and controlled drug release properties of biodegradable polymer based on poly($\varepsilon$-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) blends", J. Korean Ind. Eng. Chem., vol.12(5), pp.523-527, 2001
  12. C. Allen, J. Han, Y. Yu, D. Maysiger, A. Eisenberg, "Polycaprolactone-${\beta}$-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer micelles as a delivery vehicle for dihydrotestosterone", J. Control. Rel., vol.63, pp.275-286, 2000
  13. A.G.A. Coombes, S.C. Rizzi, M. Williamson, J.E. Barralet, S. Downes, W.A. wallace, "Precipitation casting of polycaprolactone for applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery" Biomaterials, vol.25, pp.315-325, 2004
  14. N. Annabi, A. Fathi, S. M. Mithieux, A.S. Weiss, F. Dehghani, "Fabrication of porous PCL/elastin composite scaffolds for tissue engineering application", J. of Supercritical Fluids, vol.59, pp.157-167, 2011
  15. Guiying Liao, Shengbin Jiang, Xiaojun Xu, Yangli Ke, "Electrospun aligned PLLA/PCL/HA composite fibrous membranes and their in vitro degradation behaviors", Materials Letters, vol.82, pp.159-162, 2012
  16. K. Fukushima, D. Tabuani, C. Abbate, M. Arena, P. Rizzarelli, "Preparation, characterization and biodegradation of biopolymer nanocomposites based on fumed silica", European Polymer Journal, vo.47, pp.139-152, 2011
  17. Siwon Son, J.E. Choi, Hun Cho, D.J. Kang, D.Y. Lee, J.T. Kim, U.W. Jang, "Synthesis and characterization of porous poly($\varepsilon$-caprolactone)/silica nanocomposites", Polymer(Korea), vol.39(2), pp.323-328, 2015
  18. H. Deplanine, J.L. Gomez Ribelles, G. Gallego Ferrer, "Effect of the content of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the properties and bioactivity of poly(L-lactide)-Hybrid membranes", Composites Science and Technology, vol.70, pp.1805-1812, 2010
  19. D,M. Verissimo, R.F.C. Leitao, R.A. Ribeiro, S.D. Figueiro, A.S.B. Sombra, J.C. Goes, G.A.C. Brito, "Polyanionic collagen membranes for guided tissue regeneration: Dffect of progressive glutaraldehyde cross-linking on biocompatibility and degradation", Acta Biomaterialia, vol.6, pp.4011-4018, 2010
  20. JK Park, J Yeom, EJ Oh, M Reddy, JY Kim, DW Cho, HP Lim, NS Kim, SW Park, HI Shin, DJ Yang, KB Park, SK Hahn, "Guided bone regeneration by poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) grafted byaluronic acid bi-layer films for periodontal barrier applications", Acta Biomaterialia, vol.5, pp.3394-3403, 2009
  21. ISO 10993-5, Biological evaluation of medical devices-Part 5: Tests for in vitro cytotoxicity, 2009
  22. Ji-hae Lee, Jong-Rok Lee, Ho-Jong Kang, "Preparation of poly(lactic acid) scaffolds by the particulate leaching", J. of Korean Oil Chemists' Soc., vol.20(4), pp.324-331, 2003