A Review of Fermented Foods with Beneficial Effects on Brain and Cognitive Function

  • Kim, Binna (Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Hong, Veronica Minsu (Ewha Brain Institute) ;
  • Yang, Jeongwon (Ewha Brain Institute) ;
  • Hyun, Heejung (Ewha Brain Institute) ;
  • Im, Jooyeon Jamie (Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Hwang, Jaeuk (Department of Psychiatry, Soon Chun Hyang University Hospital) ;
  • Yoon, Sujung (Ewha Brain Institute) ;
  • Kim, Jieun E. (Ewha Brain Institute)
  • Received : 2016.09.21
  • Accepted : 2016.11.13
  • Published : 2016.12.31


Around the world, fermentation of foods has been adopted over many generations, primarily due to their commercial significance with enriched flavors and high-profile nutrients. The increasing application of fermented foods is further promoted by recent evidence on their health benefits, beyond the traditionally recognized effects on the digestive system. With recent advances in the understanding of gut-brain interactions, there have also been reports suggesting the fermented food's efficacy, particularly for cognitive function improvements. These results are strengthened by the proposed biological effects of fermented foods, including neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews the beneficial health effects of fermented foods with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. With an extensive review of fermented foods and their potential cognitive benefits, this paper may promote commercially feasible applications of fermented foods as natural remedies to cognitive problems.


Supported by : Small and Medium Business Administration (SMBA), Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET), Ministry of Public Safety and Security


  1. Hutkins RW. 2008. Microbiology and technology of fermented foods. 1st ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. p 15-66.
  2. Wang HY, Qi LW, Wang CZ, Li P. 2011. Bioactivity enhancement of herbal supplements by intestinal microbiota focusing on ginsenosides. Am J Chin Med 39: 1103-1115.
  3. Lee JH, Lee JH, Jin JS. 2012. Fermentation of traditional medicine: present and future. Orient Pharm Exp Med 12: 163.
  4. Sekirov I, Russell SL, Antunes LC, Finlay BB. 2010. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiol Rev 90: 859-904.
  5. Foster JA, McVey Neufeld KA. 2013. Gut-brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression. Trends Neurosci 36: 305-312.
  6. Bienenstock J, Kunze W, Forsythe P. 2015. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis. Nutr Rev 73(S1): 28-31.
  7. Dinan TG, Cryan JF. 2012. Regulation of the stress response by the gut microbiota: implications for psychoneuroendocrinology. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37: 1369-1378.
  8. Selhub EM, Logan AC, Bested AC. 2014. Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry. J Physiol Anthropol 33: 2.
  9. Hasler CM. 2002. Functional foods: benefits, concerns and challenges-a position paper from the American Council on Science and Health. J Nutr 132: 3772-3781.
  10. Stanton C, Gardiner G, Meehan H, Collins K, Fitzgerald G, Lynch PB, Ross RP. 2001. Market potential for probiotics. Am J Clin Nutr 73: 476s-483s.
  11. Bruel-Jungerman E, Lucassen PJ, Francis F. 2011. Cholinergic influences on cortical development and adult neurogenesis. Behav Brain Res 221: 379-388.
  12. Collerton D. 1986. Cholinergic function and intellectual decline in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience 19: 1-28.
  13. Coyle JT, Puttfarcken P. 1993. Oxidative stress, glutamate, and neurodegenerative disorders. Science 262: 689-695.
  14. Mattson MP. 2004. Pathways towards and away from Alzheimer's disease. Nature 430: 631-639.
  15. Jain KK. 2010. The handbook of biomarkers. 1st ed. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, USA. p 115-396.
  16. Jain KK. 2011. The handbook of neuroprotection. 1st ed. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, USA. p 281-365.
  17. Lehtinen MK, Bonni A. 2006. Modeling oxidative stress in the central nervous system. Curr Mol Med 6: 871-881.
  18. Aksenova MV, Aksenov MY, Mactutus CF, Booze RM. 2005. Cell culture models of oxidative stress and injury in the central nervous system. Curr Neurovasc Res 2: 73-89.
  19. Humpel C. 2011. Identifying and validating biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Trends Biotechnol 29: 26-32.
  20. Bushnell PJ. 2001. Advanced behavioral testing in rodents: assessment of cognitive function in animals. Curr Protoc Toxicol 00:11.4:11.4.1-11.4.34.
  21. Farnworth ER. 2008. Handbook of fermented functional foods. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. p 1-494.
  22. Camfield DA, Owen L, Scholey AB, Pipingas A, Stough C. 2011. Dairy constituents and neurocognitive health in ageing. Br J Nutr 106: 159-174.
  23. Ozawa M, Ninomiya T, Ohara T, Doi Y, Uchida K, Shirota T, Yonemoto K, Kitazono T, Kiyohara Y. 2013. Dietary patterns and risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Am J Clin Nutr 97: 1076-1082.
  24. Ano Y, Kutsukake T, Hoshi A, Yoshida A, Nakayama H. 2015. Identification of a novel dehydroergosterol enhancing microglial anti-inflammatory activity in a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum. PLoS One 10: e0116598.
  25. Ano Y, Ozawa M, Kutsukake T, Sugiyama S, Uchida K, Yoshida A, Nakayama H. 2015. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity. PLoS One 10: e0118512.
  26. Liu TH, Chiou J, Tsai TY. 2016. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10-fermented soymilk on deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension and associated dementia in rats. Nutrients 8: 260.
  27. Ohsawa K, Uchida N, Ohki K, Nakamura Y, Yokogoshi H. 2015. Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk improves learning and memory in mice. Nutr Neurosci 18: 232-240.
  28. Kato-Kataoka A, Nishida K, Takada M, Suda K, Kawai M, Shimizu K, Kushiro A, Hoshi R, Watanabe O, Igarashi T, Miyazaki K, Kuwano Y, Rokutan K. 2016. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota prevents the onset of physical symptoms in medical students under academic examination stress. Benef Microbes 7: 153-156.
  29. Go J, Kim JE, Kwak MH, Koh EK, Song SH, Sung JE, Kim DS, Hong JT, Hwang DY. 2015. Neuroprotective effects of fermented soybean products (Cheonggukjang) manufactured by mixed culture of Bacillus subtilis MC31 and Lactobacillus sakei 383 on trimethyltin-induced cognitive defects mice. Nutr Neurosci 19: 247-259.
  30. Yang HJ, Kwon DY, Kim HJ, Kim MJ, Jung DY, Kang HJ, Kim DS, Kang S, Moon NR, Shin BK, Park S. 2015. Fermenting soybeans with Bacillus licheniformis potentiates their capacity to improve cognitive function and glucose homeostaisis in diabetic rats with experimental Alzheimer's type dementia. Eur J Nutr 54: 77-88.
  31. Yoo DH, Kim DH. 2015. Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 increases the protective effect of soybean against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Int J Food Sci Nutr 66: 912-918.
  32. Hogervorst E, Sadjimim T, Yesufu A, Kreager P, Rahardjo TB. 2008. High tofu intake is associated with worse memory in elderly indonesian men and women. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 26: 50-57.
  33. Lee CL, Kuo TF, Wu CL, Wang JJ, Pan TM. 2010. Red mold rice promotes neuroprotective sappalpha secretion instead of Alzheimer's risk factors and amyloid beta expression in hyperlipidemic $A{\beta}40$-infused rats. J Agric Food Chem 58: 2230-2238.
  34. Lee CL, Kuo TF, Wang JJ, Pan TM. 2007. Red mold rice ameliorates impairment of memory and learning ability in intracerebroventricular amyloid beta-infused rat by repressing amyloid beta accumulation. J Neurosci Res 85: 3171-3182.
  35. Lee CL, Wang JJ, Pan TM. 2008. Red mold rice extract represses amyloid beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity via potent synergism of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79: 829-841.
  36. Lee BH, Ho BY, Wang CT, Pan TM. 2009. Red mold rice promoted antioxidase activity against oxidative injury and improved the memory ability of zinc-deficient rats. J Agric Food Chem 57: 10600-10607.
  37. Tseng WT, Hsu YW, Pan TM. 2016. The ameliorative effect of Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice extracts on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and the rat model of Parkinson's disease. Food Funct 7: 752-762.
  38. Lin CM, Lin YT, Lin RD, Huang WJ, Lee MH. 2015. Neurocytoprotective effects of aliphatic hydroxamates from Lovastatin, a secondary metabolite from Monascus-fermented red mold rice, in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells. ACS Chem Neurosci 6: 716-724.
  39. Ou HP, Wang MF, Yang SC, Yamamoto S, Wang CCR. 2007. Effect of Monascus-fermented products on learning and memory in the SAMP8 mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 53: 253-260.
  40. Tseng WT, Hsu YW, Pan TM. 2016. Neuroprotective effects of dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen from Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells. Pharm Biol 54: 1434-1444.
  41. Kanouchi H, Kakimoto T, Nakano H, Suzuki M, Nakai Y, Shiozaki K, Akikoka K, Otomaru K, Nagano M, Matsumoto M. 2016. The brewed rice vinegar Kurozu increases HSPA1A expression and ameliorates cognitive dysfunction in aged P8 mice. PLoS One 11: e0150796.
  42. Hossen MJ, Kim MY, Kim JH, Cho JY. 2016. Codonopsis lanceolata: a review of its therapeutic potentials. Phytother Res 30: 347-356.
  43. He X, Zou Y, Yoon WB, Park SJ, Park DS, Ahn J. 2011. Effects of probiotic fermentation on the enhancement of biological and pharmacological activities of Codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment. J Biosci Bioeng 112: 188-193.
  44. Weon JB, Yun BR, Lee J, Eom MR, Ko HJ, Lee HY, Park DS, Chung HC, Chung JY, Ma CJ. 2014. Cognitive-enhancing effect of steamed and fermented Codonopsis lanceolata: a behavioral and biochemical study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014: 319436.
  45. Weon JB, Lee BH, Yun BR, Lee JW, Lee HY, Park DS, Chung HC, Chung JY, Ma CJ. 2013. Memory enhancing effect of Codonopsis lanceolata by high hydrostatic pressure process and fermentation. Korean J Pharmacogn 44: 41-46.
  46. Weon JB, Yun BR, Lee J, Eom MR, Ko HJ, Kim JS, Lee HY, Park DS, Chung HC, Chung JY, Ma CJ. 2013. Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with steamed and fermented process on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Biomol Ther 21: 405-410.
  47. Weon JB, Yun BR, Lee J, Eom MR, Kim JS, Lee HY, Park DS, Chung HC, Chung JY, Ma CJ. 2013. The ameliorating effect of steamed and fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013: 464576.
  48. Weon JB, Yun BR, Lee J, Eom MR, Ko HJ, Lee HY, Park DS, Chung HC, Chung JY, Ma CJ. 2014. Neuroprotective effect of steamed and fermented Codonopsis lanceolata. Biomol Ther 22: 246-253.
  49. Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. 1999. Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem Pharmacol 58: 1685-1693.
  50. Kim J, Kim SH, Lee DS, Lee DJ, Kim SH, Chung S, Yang HO. 2013. Effects of fermented ginseng on memory impairment and $\beta$-amyloid reduction in Alzheimer's disease experimental models. J Ginseng Res 37: 100-107.
  51. Tasi YC, Chin TY, Chen YJ, Huang CC, Lee SL, Wu TY. 2015. Potential natural products for Alzheimer's disease: targeted search using the internal ribosome entry site of tau and amyloid-$\beta$ precursor protein. Int J Mol Sci 16: 8789-8810.
  52. Hermawati E, Sari DC, Partadiredja G. 2015. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats. Anat Sci Int 90: 275-286.
  53. Yang EJ, Kim SI, Park SY, Bang HY, Jeong JH, So JH, Rhee IK, Song KS. 2012. Fermentation enhances the in vitro antioxidative effect of onion (Allium cepa) via an increase in quercetin content. Food Chem Toxicol 50: 2042-2048.
  54. Aruoma OI, Hayashi Y, Marotta F, Mantello P, Rachmilewitz E, Montagnier L. 2010. Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation. Toxicology 278: 6-16.
  55. Zhang J, Mori A, Chen Q, Zhao B. 2006. Fermented papaya preparation attenuates $\beta$-amyloid precursor protein: $\beta$-amyloid-mediated copper neurotoxicity in $\beta$-amyloid precursor protein and $\beta$-amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutation overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. Neuroscience 143: 63-72.
  56. Imao K, Kameyama T, Ukai M. 2001. PS-501, fermented papaya preparation, improves scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Res Comm Pharm Toxicol 6: 197-204.
  57. Barbagallo M, Marotta F, Dominguez LJ. 2015. Oxidative stress in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effect of extracts of fermented papaya powder. Mediators Inflamm 2015: 624801.
  58. Barbagallo M, Belvedere M, Di Prima A, Miraglia S, Dominguez LJ. 2013. Effetto degli estratti di papaya fermentata sullo stress ossidativo in pazienti con Malattia di Alzheimer. G Gerontol 61: 199-204.
  59. Marzulli G, Magrone T, Kawaguchi K, Kumazawa Y, Jirillo E. 2012. Fermented grape marc (FGM): immunomodulating properties and its potential exploitation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Pharm Des 18: 43-50.
  60. Lee YC. 1991. Kimchi: the famous fermented vegetable product in Korea. Food Rev Int 7: 399-415.
  61. Kwak SH, Cho YM, Noh GM, Om AS. 2014. Cancer preventive potential of kimchi lactic acid bacteria (Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum). J Cancer Prev 19: 253-258.
  62. Choi IH, Noh JS, Han JS, Kim HJ, Han ES, Song YO. 2013. Kimchi, a fermented vegetable, improves serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults: randomized clinical trial. J Med Food 16: 223-229.
  63. Choi WY, Park KY. 1999. Anticancer effects of organic Chinese cabbage kimchi. J Food Sci Nutr 4: 113-116.
  64. Jung IH, Jung MA, Kim EJ, Han MJ, Kim DH. 2012. Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 protects scopolamine-induced memory deficit in mice. J Appl Microbiol 113: 1498-1506.
  65. Choi HS, Kim MK, Park HS, Yun SE, Mun SP, Kim JS, Sapkota K, Kim S, Kim TY, Kim SJ. 2007. Biological detoxification of lacquer tree (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) stem bark by mushroom species. Food Sci Biotechnol 16: 935-942.
  66. Byun JS, Han YH, Hong SJ, Hwang SM, Kwon YS, Lee HJ, Kim SS, Kim MJ, Chun W. 2010. Bark constituents from mushroom-detoxified Rhus verniciflua suppress kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 14: 279-283.
  67. Ng TP, Feng L, Niti M, Kua EH, Yap KB. 2008. Tea consumption and cognitive impairment and decline in older Chinese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 88: 224-231.
  68. Money NP. 2016. Are mushrooms medicinal?. Fungal Biol 120: 449-453.
  69. Choi YJ, Yang HS, Jo JH, Lee SC, Park TY, Choi BS, Seo KS, Huh CK. 2015. Anti-amnesic effect of fermented Ganoderma lucidum water extracts by lactic acid bacteria on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. Prev Nutr Food Sci 20: 126-132.
  70. Lu MK, Cheng JJ, Lai WL, Lin YJ, Huang NK. 2008. Fermented Antrodia cinnamomea extract protects rat PC12 cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis: the role of the MAPK family. J Agric Food Chem 56: 865-874.
  71. Xiong J, Huang Y, Wu XY, Liu XH, Fan H, Wang W, Zhao Y, Yang GX, Zhang HY, Hu JF. 2016. Chemical constituents from the fermented mycelia of the medicinal fungus Xylaria nigripes. Helv Chim Acta 99: 83-89.
  72. Kim HU, Ryu JY, Lee JO, Lee SY. 2015. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine. Nat Biotechnol 33: 264-268.
  73. Wen YL, Yan LP, Chen CS. 2013. Effects of fermentation treatment on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of four common Chinese herbal medicinal residues by Aspergillus oryzae. J Food Drug Anal 21: 219-226.
  74. Weon JB, Ma JY, Yang HJ, Ma CJ. 2011. Neuroprotective activity of fermented Oyaksungisan. Korean J Pharmacogn 42: 22-26.
  75. Ma JY, Ma CJ, Yang HJ, Ma CJ. 2011. Quantitative analysis of compounds in fermented Insampaedok-san and their neuroprotective activity in HT22 cells. Nat Prod Sci 17: 58-63.
  76. Lee MR, Yun BS, Oh CJ, Kim BC, Oh HI, Sung CK. 2011. Characterization of Korean traditional medicine Chongmyungtang for cognitive function related to anti-cholinesterases and antioxidant activity. Food Sci Biotechnol 20: 1331.
  77. Nam JI, Park YW, Jeon H. 2010. Memory enhancing and antioxidant properties of fermented Chongmyung-tang. Nat Prod Sci 16: 93-98.
  78. Weon JB, Lee B, Yun BR, Lee J, Ma JY, Ma CJ. 2014. Neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing activity of the fermented Bozhougyiqi-Tang. Pharmacogn Mag 10: 249-255.
  79. Weon JB, Lee J, Eom MR, Jung YS, Ma CJ. 2016. Cognitive enhancing effect of the fermented Gumiganghwal-tang on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Nutr Neurosci 19: 125-130.
  80. Yun BR, Weon JB, Lee J, Eom MR, Ma CJ. 2014. Neuroprotective effect of the fermented Gumiganghwal-tang. J Biosci Bioeng 118: 235-238.
  81. Yang HJ, Weon JB, Lee B, Ma CJ. 2011. The alteration of components in the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang and its neuroprotective activity. Pharmacogn Mag 7: 207-212.
  82. Park HR, Lee H, Park H, Cho WK, Ma JY. 2016. Fermented Sipjeondaebo-tang alleviates memory deficits and loss of hippocampal neurogenesis in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Sci Rep 6: 22405.
  83. Hooper LV, Wong MH, Thelin A, Hansson L, Falk PG, Gordon JI. 2001. Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine. Science 291: 881-884.
  84. De Vadder F, Kovatcheva-Datchary P, Goncalves D, Vinera J, Zitoun C, Duchampt A, Backhed F, Mithieux G. 2014. Microbiota-generated metabolites promote metabolic benefits via gut-brain neural circuits. Cell 156: 84-96.
  85. Renouf M, Guy PA, Marmet C, Fraering AL, Longet K, Moulin J, Enslen M, Barron D, Dionisi F, Cavin C, Williamson G, Steiling H. 2010. Measurement of caffeic and ferulic acid equivalents in plasma after coffee consumption: small intestine and colon are key sites for coffee metabolism. Mol Nutr Food Res 54: 760-766.
  86. Park EK, Shin J, Bae EA, Lee YC, Kim DH. 2006. Intestinal bacteria activate estrogenic effect of main constituents puerarin and daidzin of Pueraria thunbergiana. Biol Pharm Bull 29: 2432-2435.
  87. Sudo N, Chida Y, Aiba Y, Sonoda J, Oyama N, Yu XN, Kubo C, Koga Y. 2004. Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system for stress response in mice. J Physiol 558: 263-275.
  88. Gareau MG, Jury J, MacQueen G, Sherman PM, Perdue MH. 2007. Probiotic treatment of rat pups normalises corticosterone release and ameliorates colonic dysfunction induced by maternal separation. Gut 56: 1522-1528.
  89. Ait-Belgnaoui A, Durand H, Cartier C, Chaumaz G, Eutamene H, Ferrier L, Houdeau E, Fioramonti J, Bueno L, Theodorou V. 2012. Prevention of gut leakiness by a probiotic treatment leads to attenuated HPA response to an acute psychological stress in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37: 1885-1895.
  90. Bercik P, Verdu EF, Foster JA, Macri J, Potter M, Huang X, Malinowski P, Jackson W, Blennerhassett P, Neufeld KA, Lu J, Khan WI, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Cherbut C, Bergonzelli GE, Collins SM. 2010. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry in mice. Gastroenterology 139: 2102-2112.e1.
  91. Bercik P, Denou E, Collins J, Jackson W, Lu J, Jury J, Deng Y, Blennerhassett P, Macri J, McCoy KD, Verdu EF, Collins SM. 2011. The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behavior in mice. Gastroenterology 141: 599-609.e3.
  92. Bravo JA, Forsythe P, Chew MV, Escaravage E, Savignac HM, Dinan TG, Bienenstock J, Cryan JF. 2011. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108: 16050-16055.
  93. Barrett E, Ross RP, O'Toole PW, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C. 2012. $\gamma$-Aminobutyric acid production by culturable bacteria from the human intestine. J Appl Microbiol 113: 411-417.
  94. Clarke G, Grenham S, Scully P, Fitzgerald P, Moloney RD, Shanahan F, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. 2013. The microbiomegut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner. Mol Psychiatry 18: 666-673.
  95. Desbonnet L, Garrett L, Clarke G, Bienenstock J, Dinan TG. 2008. The probiotic Bifidobacteria infantis: an assessment of potential antidepressant properties in the rat. J Psychiatr Res 43: 164-174.

Cited by

  1. Nutritional Psychiatry: Where to Next? vol.17, 2017,
  2. Absence of subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity of rice koji with Aspergillus terreus vol.89, 2017,
  3. Health Benefits of Fermented Foods 2017,
  4. Impact of Fermented Foods on Human Cognitive Function—A Review of Outcome of Clinical Trials vol.86, pp.2, 2018,