Physicochemical Characteristics of Black Garlic after Different Thermal Processing Steps

  • Kang, Ok-Ju (Department of Food, Nutrition and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University)
  • Received : 2016.08.01
  • Accepted : 2016.10.10
  • Published : 2016.12.31


This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (BG) after different thermal processing steps. Compared with fresh garlic (FG), the moisture content and pH in BG decreased significantly, while the ash content and browning intensity increased during thermal processing. The total mineral and the free sugar contents were significantly higher than that of the BG2 and BG4 samples, respectively. The free sugar content increased by 16-fold in the BG cloves compared with that of FG, while the amino acid content increased during the first stage of thermal processing, and subsequently decreased. The thiosulfinate content in all samples decreased to during thermal processing. The pyruvic acid content initially increased and then decreased during thermal processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the role of thermal processing in the quality formation of BG.


  1. Butt MS, Sultan MT, Butt MS, Iqbal J. 2009. Garlic: nature's protection against physiological threats. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49: 538-551.
  2. Ye HY, Zhang ZY. 2003. Study progress on immune regulation effect of garlic. J Chin Med Pharmacol 3: 54-56.
  3. Kim JH, Nam SH, Rico CW, Kang MY. 2012. A comparative study on the antioxidative and anti-allergic activities of fresh and aged black garlic extracts. Int J Food Sci Technol 47: 1176-1182.
  4. Corzo-Martínez M, Corzo N, Villamiel M. 2007. Biological properties of onions and garlic. Trends Food Sci Technol 18: 609-625.
  5. Bae SE, Cho SY, Won YD, Lee SH, Park HJ. 2012. A comparative study of the different analytical methods for analysis of S-allyl cysteine in black garlic by HPLC. LWT-Food Sci Technol 46: 532-535.
  6. Gorinstein S, Leontowicz M, Leontowicz H, Najman K, Namiesnik J, Park YS, Jung ST, Kang SG, Trakhtenberg S. 2006. Supplementation of garlic lowers lipids and increases antioxidant capacity in plasma of rats. Nutr Res 26: 362-368.
  7. Ide N, Lau BHS. 1999. Aged garlic extract attenuates intracellular oxidative stress. Phytomedicine 6: 125-131.
  8. AOAC. 2000. Moisture in soft-moist and semi-moist pet foods: Method number 991.02. In Official methods of analysis of AOAC. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washionton DC, USA.
  9. Skunjins S. 1998. A short guide to vista series ICP-AES operation. In Handbook for ICP-AES (Varian-Vista). Varian Int., Cham, Switzerland. p 29.
  10. Navarro JM, Martinez VV, Carvajal M. 2000. Ammonium, bicarbonate and calcium effects on tomato plants grown under saline conditions. Plant Sci 157: 89-96.
  11. Samaniego-Esguerra CM, Boag IF, Robertson GL. 1991. Kinetics of quality deterioration in dried onions and green beans as a function of temperature and water activity. LWT- Food Sci Technol 24: 53-58.
  12. Yilmaz Y, Toledo R. 2005. Antioxidant activity of water-soluble Maillard reaction products. Food Chem 93: 273-278.
  13. Shin JH, Choi DJ, Chung MJ, Kang MJ, Sung NJ. 2008. Changes of physicochemical components and antioxidant activity of aged garlic at different temperatures. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 1174-1181.
  14. Bae SE, Cho SY, Won YD, Lee SH, Park HJ. 2014. Changes in S-allyl cysteine contents and physicochemical properties of black garlic during heat treatment activity. LWT-Food Sci Technol 55: 397-402.
  15. Houston MC, Harper KJ. 2008. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium: their role in both the cause and treatment of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens 10: 3-11.
  16. Andreini C, Bertini I, Cavallaro G, Holliday GL, Thornton JM. 2008. Metal ions in biological catalysis: from enzyme databases to general principles. J Biol Inorg Chem 13: 1205-1218.
  17. Aggarwal R, Sentz J, Miller MA. 2007. Role of zinc administration in prevention of childhood diarrhea and respiratory illnesses: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 119: 1120-1130.
  18. Boosalis MG. 2008. The role of selenium in chronic disease. Nutr Clin Pract 23: 152-160.
  19. Atashi S, Akbarpour V, Mashayekhi K, Mousavizadeh SJ. 2011. Garlic physiological characteristics from harvest to sprouting in response to low temperature. J Stored Prod Postharvest Res 2: 285-291.
  20. Shin JH, Lee SJ, Jung WJ, Kang MJ, Sung NJ. 2011. Physicochemical characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on collected from the different regions. J Agric Life Sci 45: 103-114.
  21. Choi DJ, Lee SJ, Kang MJ, Cho HS, Sung NJ, Shin JH. 2008. Physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (Allium sativum L.). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 465-471.
  22. Mankarios AT, Jones CFG, Jarvis MC, Threfall DR, Friend J. 1979. Hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides and GLC analysis of their constituent neutral sugars. Phytochemistry 18: 419-422.
  23. Liang T, Wei F, Lu Y, Kodani Y, Nakada M, Miyakawa T, Tanokura M. 2015. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing. J Agric Food Chem 63: 683-691.
  24. Ichikawa M, Yoshida J, Ide N, Sasaoka T, Yamaguchi H, Ono K. 2006. Tetrahydro-$\beta$-carboline derivatives in aged garlic extract show antioxidant properties. J Nutr 136: 726S-731S.
  25. Kinalski T, Norena CPZ. 2014. Effect of blanching treatments on antioxidant activity and thiosulfinate degradation of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Food Bioprocess Technol 7: 2152.
  26. Hua XF, Huang XS. 2006. Factors of affecting the allium's Maillard reaction. Food Sci Tech 7: 156-158.
  27. Zhang M, Lei N, Zhu T, Zhang Z. 2013. Thermal processing effects on the chemical constituent and antioxidant activity of S-alk(en)ylcysteine S-oxides (alliin) extract. LWT-Food Sci Technol 51: 309-313.
  28. Amagase H, Petesch BL, Matsuura H, Kasuga S, Itakura Y. 2001. Intake of garlic and its bioactive components. J Nutr 131: 955S-962S.
  29. Gallina PM, Cabassi G, Maggioni A, Natalini A, Ferrante A. 2012. Changes in the pyruvic acid content correlates with phenotype traits in onion clones. Aust J Crop Sci 6: 36-40.
  30. Russo M, di Sanzo R, Cefaly V, Carabetta S, Serra D, Fuda S. 2013. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach. Food Chem 141: 896-899.

Cited by

  1. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review vol.22, pp.6, 2017,