- Volume 19 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
An Analysis of Correlation between Pinus thunbergii Forests and Soil Conditions by TWINSPAN and CCA Ordination in West Coast of South Korea
TWINSPAN과 CCA Ordination에 의한 서해안 곰솔림과 토양환경과의 상관 분석
- Received : 2015.11.25
- Accepted : 2016.02.27
- Published : 2016.02.29
Vegetation and soil conditions of four sites in west coastal forests in South Korea, were examined to analyze the relationship between Pinus thunbergii forests structure and soil conditions. The P. thunbergii forests were divided into four clusters; 1) P. thunbergii - Prunus sargentii var. sargentii, 2) P. thunbergii - Robinia pseudoacacia, 3) P. thunbergii - P. densiflora and 4) P. thunbergii - Quercus serrata. The soil of each site was poor in chemical characteristics but good enough for land plants to grow because of its low salt concentration. According to the results by CCA Ordination, certain excessive soil nutrition has influenced on vegetation and specific species distribution. Forty eight species were found in the whole sites of coastal forests and some species appeared in every site. They are P. thunbergii, R. pseudoacacia, Rhus chinensis, Idesia polycarpa and Morus alba. For the tree species importance value, P. thunbergii was followed by R. pseudoacacia, Q. serrata, P. densiflora, Celtis sinensis, M. alba, I. polycarpa and Q. mongolica in order.
Pinus thunbergii - Prunus sargentii community;P. thunbergii - Robinia pseudoacacia community;P. thunbergii - P. densiflora community;P. thunbergii - Quercus serrata community;importance value
- Lee JH.Do MS and Song HK. 2013. Vegetation structure of Hongdo island. Korea Journal Environment and Ecology 27(5): 45-54. (in Korean)
- Lee SC.Kang HM.Kim JS.Yu CY and Choi SH. 2014. A study on the correlation plant community and environmental factors of Tongdosa (Temple) Area, Gajisan(Mt.) Provincial Park. Korea Journal Environment and Ecology 28(6): 715-724. https://doi.org/10.13047/KJEE.2014.28.6.715
- Lee SK.Kim KH.Kim YT.Park JY and Lee SH. 2005. Occurrence of Rhizina Root Rot in a black pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest located at the western coastal area in Korea and its spreading patterns. Research in Plant Disease 11(2): 208-212. https://doi.org/10.5423/RPD.2005.11.2.208
- Lee TB 2003. Coloured Flora of Korea.
- Kim HP. 2011. Studies on the characteristics of survival and growth of Pinus thunbergii planted in a coastal snad zone. M.S. thesis, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Korea, p. 50. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Kim HS.Lee SM.Chung HL and Song HK. 2009. A study of the vegetation in the Deogyusan National Park. Korea. Korea Journal Environment and Ecology 23(5): 471-484.
- Nakashima Y. 2005. Situations and problems of coastal forest in Japan. Proc. of joint seminar of Korean Society of Coastal Forest and Japanese Society of Coastal Forest, pp. 7-10.
- Oh HK. 2002. Vegetation structure and habitat management of windbreak forest: In case of four sites in the southern coast of the Korean peninsula. M.S. thesis, University of Yeungnam, Gyungsan, Korea, p. 169.
- Park CM.Kim SW and Park SH. 2009. Study on growth characteristics of Pinus thunbergii windbreak forests around Goosipo beach, Gochang-gun. Korea Journal Environment and Ecology 23(4): 365-375. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Rural Development Administration(RDA). 1988. Analysis Methods of Soil Physical and Mineralogical Properties.
- Shin HS. 2013. Community ecological research for the mid west coast vegetation conservation and restoration. Ph.D thesis, Kongju National University, Gongju, Korea, p. 119. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Song HK.Jang KK and Kwon KW. 1994. An analysis on the forest community in Mt. Odae by Ywo-Way indicator species analysis and by Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Research Report Environment Science Technique of Chungnam National University 12: 47-54. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Song HK.Jang KK and Oh DH. 1998. An analysis of vegetation-environment relationships of Quercus mongolica in Soraksan Nationa Park. Korrea Journal of Ecology 11(4): 462-468. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Ter Braak, C. J. F. 1987. CANOCO-A FORTRAN program for canonical community ordination by [partical] [detrended] [cannical] correspondence analysis, principal components analysis and redundancy analysis(version 2.1) TNO Institute of Applied Computer Science, Statistics Department, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
- Bae JY.Kim JS.Lee KJ.Kim JY and Yeum JH. 2013. Changes of vegetation structure in Naejangsan district, Naejangsan National Park for twenty years (1991-2010), Korea. Korea Journal of Environment and Ecology 27(1): 99-112. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Choi CH. 2004. Flora and vegetation structure of the coastal dune area in Sinduri, Korea. M.S. thesis, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea, p. 59. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Choi HJ. 2009. Flora and stand structure of the coastal forest at the same latitude of east and west coast in Korea. M.S. thesis, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea, p. 60. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Chung JC.Jang KK.Choi JH.Jang SK and Oh DH. 1997. An analysis of vegetationenvironment relationship and forest community in Mt. Unjang by TWINSPAN and Ordination. Journal of Korean Forest Society 86(4): 459-465. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Curtis & McIntosh. 1951. An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Winsconsin. Ecology. 32: 476-496. https://doi.org/10.2307/1931725
- Greig-Smith, P. 1983. Quantitative plant ecology. 3rd ed. Blackwell, Oxford.
- Hill, M. O. 1979a. DECORANA - A FORTRAN Program for detrended correspondence analysis and reciprocal averaging. Ithaca, N. Y. Cornell Univ. Press. p. 100.
- Hill, M. O. 1979b. TWINSPAN-A FORTRAN Program for arranging multivariate data in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. Ithaca, N. Y. Cornell Univ. Press. p. 50.
- Hill, M. O. and Gauch, H. G. Jr. 1980. Detrended correspondence analysis an improved ordination technique. Vegetatio. 42: 47-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00048870
- Jang JH.Han BH.Lee KJ.Choi JW and Noh TW. 2013. A study on the changes of vegetation structure of the plant community in Mt. Kwanak. Korea Journal of Environment and Ecology 27(3): 344-356. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Jeong JH.Koo KS.Lee CH and Kim CS. 2002. Physico-chemical properties of Korea Forest Soils by regions. Journal of Korean Forest Society 91(6): 694-700. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Kim CB. 2012. Effects of soil physical-chemical characteristics on plants on sand dune -A case study on central-western coastal area of Korea-. M.S. thesis, Korea University, Seoul, Korea, p. 47. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Kim CB.Park KH.Lee CW.Youn HJ and Kim KH. 2014. A comparison on the forest type of coastal disaster prevention forest between the coastal area in Korea. Journal of Korean Forest science 103(4): 564-573. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.14578/jkfs.2014.103.4.564
- Kim DG. 2010. Native tree species of tolerance to saline soil and salt spray drift at the coastal forests in the West-sea, Korea. Korea Journal Environment and Ecology 24(2): 209-221. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Kim HJ.Jung SH.Hwang CH.Kim H.Choi SM and Lee SH. 2012. Vegetation structure and management plan for windbreak forests along the west coast in Korea. Journal of Agriculture & Life Science 46(1): 71-81. (in Korean with English abstract)
- Lee WT.Chon SK. 1984. Ecologiaal studies on the coastal plants in Korea - On the sand dune vegetation of the western coast. Korean Journal of Ecology 7(2): 74-84. (in Korean with English abstract)